Skip to main content

Full text of "Flowers and festivals, or, Directions for the floral decoration of churches"

See other formats


Jflotes anb Jtsiifels 



DIRECTIONS FOR FLORAL DECORATION 
OF CHURCHES 



"Art is like a prudent steward, that lives on managing the 
riches oj nature." POPE 



RIVINGTONS 

lumtron . Waterloo Place 

ifort .... 'High Street 
CCamfirtogr . . ' . . Trinity Street 



Plat 




Vincent, Brooks, lilh 



Jfkte arto 




DIRECTIONS FOR THE FLORAL DECORATION 
OF CHURCHES 



BY W. A. BARRETT 

OF s. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL 

LATE CLERK OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE, AND COMMONER OF 
S. MARY HALL, OXFORD 



' Quidquid ex ejjecto puro et sincere prontitur, lioc est deconnn." 

S. AMBKOSK. 



RIVINGTONS 
, tP.vforti. and 
1868 



WIVES AND DAUGHTERS OF 
OUR PAROCHIAL CLERGY 

WHO 
LIKE THOSE WHO WERE FIRST AT THE 

HOLY SEPULCHRE 
ARE FOREMOST IN EVERY GOOD AND USEFUL WORK 

is 

WITH EVERY RESPECT 

BY THE AUTHOR. 



1114933 



THE present work, which ought, perhaps, to be 
styled more a compilation than' a composition, 
as it can claim no merit of being the very first 
of its kind, is intended to serve as a Hand-book 
for those who wish to know how to set about 
decorating their Churches, to God's honour and 
glory, for the various Festivals of the Christian 
Year. 

In order to make the book interesting, apart 
from the main object in view, and yet more or 
less connected with it, care has been taken to 
explain, as fully as possible, the meanings of 
the various symbolical forms usually employed, 



viii Preface 

that their use in Floral decoration may not 
be misunderstood, or misinterpreted, so as to 
be taken for " dark or dumb ceremonies ; 
but be so set forth, that every man may 
understand what they do mean, and to what 
use they do serve." 

With a hearty desire that the book may be 
found useful ; and that the information in its 
pages may conduce to the " procuring of Reve- 
rence, and exciting of piety and devotion in the 
publick worship of God," the Author sends it 
forth to the world, "with all its imperfections 
on its head." 



LONDON, 
All Saints' Day, 1867. 



Content* 



PAGE 

HISTORICAL NOTES 3 

CROSSES ' . . . 26 

EMBLEMS OF OUR LORD AND OF THE SAINTS . . 35 

FLOWERS AND PLANTS DEDICATED TO SAINTS . . 55 

GENERAL HINTS IOI 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DESIGNS 1 15 

SENTENCES AND TEXTS OF SCRIPTURE . . . 139 

CONCLUSION . ... 166 



Jflokrs <nft Jtstifals 

HISTORICAL NOTES 

" Let the old customs stand firm " 

TT is evident that the use of flowers and green 
boughs as a means of decoration, is almost instinctive 
in human nature; and we accordingly find scarcely 
any nation, civilized or savage, with which it has not 
become more or less familiar. The Jews employed it 
in their feast of tabernacles in the month of Sep- 
tember; the Druids and other Celtic nations hung up 
the mistletoe over their doors. 

A quaint old writer thus spiritualizes the practice 
of Christmas decoration : " So our churches and 
houses, decked with bayes, and rosemary, holly and 
ivy, and other plants which are always green, winter 



B 2 



Flowers and Festivals 



and summer, signify and put us in mind of His 
Deity ; that the child who now was born was God and 
man, who should spring up like a tender plant, should 
always be green and nourishing, and live for ever- 
more 1 ." 

The custom of decorating places of worship and 
private dwellings with garlands of leaves or flowers, at 
certain seasons of the year, may be traced to a very 
remote period. 

An account of the origin of this ancient custom is 
given in Phillips's " Sylva Florifera : the Shrubbery 
Historically and Botanically Treated," vol. i. page 
281, edit 1823. 

" We revere," says the author, " the holly branch, 
with its spiny and highly varnished foliage, which 
reflects its coral berries, as an emblem that foretells 
the festival of Christmas, and the season when 
English hospitality shines in roast beef, turkeys, and 
the national pudding." 

1 "Book of Days." 



Historical Notes 



Tradition says that the first Christian Church in 
Britain was built of boughs, and that the disciples 
adopted the plan, as more likely to attract the notice 
of the people, because the heathens built their 
temples in that manner, probably to imitate the 
temples of Saturn, which were always under the oak. 

The great feast of Saturn was held in December; 
and as the oaks of this country are then without 
leaves, the priests obliged the people to bring in boughs 
and sprigs of evergreens; and Christians, on the 2^th 
of the same month, did the like ; from whence 
originated the present custom of placing holly and 
other evergreens in our churches and houses, to show 
the feast of Christmas is arrived. 

The name of Holly is a corruption of the word 
holy, as Dr. Turner, our earliest writer on plants, calls 
it Holy and Holy-tree, which appellation was given to 
it most probably, from its being used in holy places. 

It has a great variety of names in Germany, 
amongst which is Christdorn. In Danish it is also 
called Christorn, and in Swedish Christtorn, amongst 



Flowers and Festivals 



other appellations ; from whence it appears that it is 
considered a holy plant by certain classes in those 
countries. 

The practice of decoration is frequently alluded 
to in the writings of the Early Fathers, and in such a 
manner as to leave no doubt of the prevalence and 
piety of the practice. 

We read in Langley's translation of Polydore 
Vergil, that the early Christians were in the habit of 
" Trimmyng of the temples with hangynges, floures, 
boughes, and garlondes." S. Augustine also parti- 
cularly mentions this custom; as, in describing the 
renunciation of Paganism for Christianity made by 
the expiring Martialis, whose son-in-law, after pray- 
ing with much fervour at the foot of the altar, 
carried off from it some of the flowers which were 
placed there, to convey them to the bedside of his 
dying relative. Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, gives us 
another instance of the early use of flowers for 
decoration of the Church for the annual festival of 
his Patron Saint, in the following lines : 



Historical Notes 



" Ferte Deo, pueri laudem, pia solvite vota, 
Spargite flore solum, prastexite limina sertis ; 
Purpureum ver spiret hyems, sit floreus annus 
Ante diem, sancto cedat natura diei 2 ." 

Which has been rendered into English thus : 

" Sing praises to your God, ye youths, and pay your holy vows, 
The floor with many flowers strew, the threshold bind with 

boughs, 
Let Winter breathe a fragrance forth, like as the purple 

Spring ; 

Let the young year, before the time, its floral treasures bring, 
And nature yield to this great day, herself an offering." 

Likewise S. Jerome, in speaking of his friend 
Nepotian, says "that his pious care for the Divine 
worship was such, that he made flowers of many 
kinds, and the leaves of trees and the branches of 
the vine, contribute to the beauty and ornament of 
the Church." "These things," continues S. Jerome, 
" were indeed but trifling in themselves ; but a pious 
mind, devoted to Christ, is intent upon small things 

2 Paulinus Natal. 3 ; Felicis Hieron. Ep. 3 ; Epitaph. Nepo- 
tiam. Ed. Bened. torn. iv. 272. 



8 Flowers and Festivals 



as well as great, and neglects nothing that pertains 
even to the meanest office of the Church." 

Stow, in his "Survey of London," says, "that against 
the feast of Christmas, every man's house, as also 
their parish churches, were decked with holme, ivy, 
bayes, and whatsoever the season of the year afforded 
to be green." 

But the practice of adorning the Church with 
garlands and flowers was not particularly confined to 
Christmas-tide, but was also observed at the greater 
festivals of the Church, and more especially upon the 
feast-day of the Saint to whom the Church was 
dedicated; for Barnabe Googe, in his translation of 
the " Regnum Papisticum of Naogeorgus," describing 
a dedication feast, says : 

" From out the steeple high is hangde a crosse and banner fayre, 
The pavement of the temple strowde with hearbes of pleasant 

ayre, 

The pulpets and the aulters, all that in the Church are scene, 
And every pewe and pillar grete are deckt with boughes of 

greene." 

The use of flowers and wreaths for the decoration 



Historical Notes 



of Churches on feast days, is still very common in 
many parts of England, more especially among the 
rural population. 

In Devonshire, Cornwall, Somerset, Derbyshire, 
and Yorkshire, more especially does the custom still 
exist Upon the day of the village feast, or wake, 
the Church is generally profusely decorated with 
flowers, independently of the great festivals of the 
Church Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide. 

The first day of May, the feast of SS. Philip and 
James, is a great day in many villages, for garlands 
and flowers and homely rejoicing, derived no doubt 
from very ancient times. 

It is not intended now to show in how varied a 
manner the day is observed in different places, not 
only in the country, but also in the large towns, even 
in the metropolis itself; but to describe how that, 
among other observances of the day, it has been and 
still is the custom to deck the House of God with 
flowers and wreaths. 

The "Maying" season has ever been a favourite 



i o Flowers and Festivals 



theme with poets of all ages, who, in describing the 
customs of their time, have made frequent allusions 
to the decking the Church, so prevalent at this period. 
As far as the present purpose is concerned, we can 
only regret that the descriptions they have be- 
queathed to us are not so full as we should have 
wished ; for in many instances they have only made a 
passing allusion to a custom which was probably so 
common as not to call for special comment. Edmund 
Spenser, in his " Shepherd's Calendar," tells us how 
that : 

" Youths folke now flocken in every where, 
To gather May buskets 3 , and smeling breere; 
And home they hasten, the posts to dight, 
And all the Kirke pillars, ere day light, 
With hawthorne buds, and sweet eglantine, 
And girlonds of roses." 

The practice of strewing May flowers about the 
doors and in the houses is still followed in many parts 
of the kingdom ; and the May-pole still celebrates in 
many villages the return of this merry month : 

3 Boughs. 



Historical Notes 1 1 



" Faire May, the fairest mayd on ground, 
Deck'd all with dainties of her season's pryde, 
And throwing flowers out of her cap around." 

At Charlton-on-Otmoor, in Oxfordshire, there is a 
rood-loft of finely-carved oak, probably of the time of 
Henry the Seventh, upon which the original colour 
and gilding is yet to be seen. On this rood-loft it is 
the custom to place a garland formed upon a large 
wooden cross, upon May-day ; which garland remains 
there until the following year, when it is renewed, with 
fresh flowers and leaves, occupying the position of the 
ancient Holy Rood of former ages. It was formerly 
the custom to carry this cross in procession round the 
village before finally depositing it in its resting-place 
in the Church. 

Of all old customs, that of adorning the " Holy 
Place of the tabernacle of the Most Highest" with 
flowers and wreaths at Christmas and other festivals 
of the Christian year, speaks of the simple faith and 
fervent love of our ancestors more strongly than any 
other, at those times of the year when the beauties of 



1 2 Flowers and Festivals 



nature prompted men " to look up from Nature unto 
Nature's God." Nothing seems so appropriately to 
express the feeling of gladness and the thanks of a 
heart grateful for all God's mercies than the decoration 
of the house of prayer and praise with floral offerings. 

There are many persons who condemn the custom 
of so decorating the Church, as if there was some- 
thing idolatrous in the simple and poetic practice; 
simple and poetic, because it may be considered as 
an humble offering to the Great Creator of those 
creatures which are, of all earthly things, the most 
appropriate emblems of purity and sanctity. 

What is more beautiful to behold than the flowers 
of the earth wreathing and adorning, with graceful 
foliage, the columns of a Christian Church; as though 
pouring out in mute adoration their praises to the 
King of Kings, when we are celebrating the festival of 
the Nativity of Him " who took- our nature upon 
Him," who came in lowly guise to be the Prince of 
Peace, the Sun of Righteousness, the Redeemer of 
Mankind ? Ought it not to give rise to a feeling that 



Historical Notes 13 



we and they are paying a silent and grateful homage 
to Him " who crowneth the year with His good- 
ness ?" 

' Would that our scrupulous sires had dared to leave 

Less scanty measure of those grateful rites 

And usages, whose due return invites 
A stir of mind too natural to deceive ; 
Giving the memory help when she would weave 

A crown for Hope ! I dread the boasted lights, 

That all too often are but fiery blights, 
Killing the bud, o'er which in vain we grieve. 
Go, seek, when Christmas snows discomfort bring, 

The counter spirit found in some gay Church, 

Green with fresh holly, ev'ry pew a perch, 
On which the linnet or the thrush might sing, 

Merry and loud, and safe from prying search, 
Strains offer'd only to the genial spring.'' 

WORDSWORTH. 

In many ancient documents, which contain records 
of expenses incurred by the parishes or guilds to 
which they formerly belonged, we find frequent entries 
of money paid for materials for decorating Churches 
for the various seasons. For instance, in the account- 
books of the parish of S. Mary-at-Hill, in the city of 



14 Flowers and Festivals 



London (17 and 19 Ed. IV.), there is the following 
entry : 

"For rose garlondis and woodreve garlondis on 

S. Barnebe's daye xjd." 

And for 1486 : 

' ' Item, for two doss' di bocse garlands for prestes 

and clerkes on Saynt Barnabes' daye . js. xd." 
" Easter. Three great garlands for the crosses, of 1 

roses and lavendar ... > 35. 

Three dozen other garlands for the quire J 
Holme and ivy at Christmas eve. . . iiijd. 4 " 

In the Churchwarden's accounts for the parish of 
S. Lawrence, Reading, we read : 

1505. " It. Payed to Makrell for the holy bush agayne 

Christmas ...... ijd" 

In the Churchwardens' accounts of the parish of 
S. Martin Outwich, London, is : 

1524. "Item : payde for brome agaynst Ester . . jd. 

Item : for holy and ivy at Chrystmas . . ijd. ob. 
Item : for rose garlands on Corpus Xti. day . ijd. 5 " 

4 See also Brand, vol. i. 293. 

5 North, Chronicle of S. Martin, Leicester, p. 223. 



Historical Notes 15 



In the Steward's accounts of the guild of Corpus 
Christi, at Leicester, for the years 1525-6, is the fol- 
lowing entry : 
"It' ffor garneshyng off the awter . . . iijs. iiijd. 8 " 

That the custom of decorating churches with ever- 
greens and flowers was not confined to Christmas 
alone, the above quotations show. 

John Evelyn, writing about the year 1660, describes 
the practice in his time a time when the ancient 
customs of the Church were more or less smothered 
by Puritanism. Speaking of holly, he bursts into a 
poetical rapture, and says : " We still dress up our 
Churches and houses on Christmas and other festival 
days, with its cheerful green, and rutilant" berries." 

In 1535 the University of Oxford was visited by the 
Royal Commissioners; and, in the year after, the King 
recommended certain articles concerning faith and 
ceremonies ; saying, among other matters, " that vest- 
ments for God's service, holy water, candles on 

6 North's Chron. of S. Martin. 7 Shining. 



16 Flowers and Festivals 



Candlemas Day, palms on Palm Sunday, and other 
laudable customs, were to be continued; but that none 
of them had power to remit sin." 

A charge is extant for green wax for making flowers 

round the candles in Obitu Fundatoris, in the books of 

i 
Magdalen College, Oxford, for the year 1488-9*, and 

there are various other similar disbursements at different 
times. Payment for the last time appears to have been 
made for decorating the chapel with green boughs for 
the feast of S. John Baptist, in the year 1766. 

The old custom of preaching an annual sermon from 
the stone pulpit in S. John's quadrangle was trans- 
ferred to the Chapel about this time, as we find from 
Whitfield; who, in a pamphlet published about the 
year 1768, says : "They have lately thought proper to 
adjourn into the Chapel 9 ." Upon this occasion, the 
ground was covered with green rushes and grass, as 
were the surrounding walls and buildings with verdant 

3 " Will Tonsori pro cera viridi pro floribus fiendis circa can- 
delis in obitu Dni. Fundatoris, iiijd." Bloxam, 262. 
9 Bloxam, Magd. Coll. Reg., p. xxviij. 



Historical Notes 1 7 



boughs of trees and with flowers, to imitate the 
preaching of S. John in the wilderness. 

Hearne, in his Diary, 2^th June, 1716, says: "Yes- 
terday preached at Magdalen College, Mr. Lydall, 
B.D., and Fellow of that college. It is customary 
upon this day to preach in a stone pulpit in the 
quadrangle, all beset with boughs, by way of allusion 
to S. John Baptist's preaching in the wilderness ; but 
this being a damp morning, the sermon was preached 
in the Chapel, as it always is when the morning proves 
wet" 

In the parish book of S. Margaret, Westminster, we 
find entries as late as 1647 : 

1647. "Payde for garnyshyng the iiij torches for Cor- 
pus Christye day ijs. 

Flowres to the same torches . . . vjd. 
Item, payd for rosemarie and bayes that was 

stuck about the Church at Christmas . js. vjd." 

In Herbert's "Country Parson," 1675, page 56, the 
author tells us : " Our parson takes order that the 
Church be swept and kept clean, without dust or 

cobwebs; and at great festivals strawed and stuck 

c 



1 8 Flozvers and Festivals 



with boughs, and perfumed with incense." And in 
the parish accounts of S. Botolph, Bishopsgate, is 
the following entry for the year 1678 : 

" Paid for frankincense and flowers, when the Chan- 
cellor sat with us ....... ijd." 

Polydore Vergil has also reference to the custom 
of not only decorating the Church with flowers ; but 
says that, in England, the priests performed the ser- 
vice, on certain high days, crowned with flowers; 
more especially at S. Paul's Cathedral, in London, 
on the feast-day of the Patron Saint. 

Learned John Stow also states that the Dean and 
Chapter of that Cathedral, on S. Paul's day, were 
" apparelled in coaps and vestments, with garlands 
of roses on their heads." A probable relic of this 
custom may be traced in the fact that the Judges, 
the Lord Mayor, the Aldermen, Sheriffs, and Common 
Councillors, when they attend Service at the Cathe- 
dral on the Sunday after Easier, and on Trinity 
Sunday, with many of the Clergy, carry each of 
them a bouquet of flowers in their hands, which 



Historical Notes 1 9 



they either leave behind after service, or give to 
the Choristers or female members of the congre- 
gation. 

It may be that the custom of carrying flowers to 
Church was anciently considered a mark of temporary 
distinction, and practised only when service was 
officially attended. 

The peasantry living on the Elbe who possess a 
bit of land never enter the Church without a nosegay 
in their hands. They thus show that they claim the 
consideration due to persons who possess some pro- 
perty in the neighbourhood. Among the country 
people near Hamburg, there is no garden so small 
as not to possess a place for the flowers intended 
for this use; and the plat is distinguished by the 
name of " the Church nosegay '." 

In many country places in England, the habit of 
taking small bunches of flowers in the hand to 
Church is still observed, both by the peasantry and 
gentle people. 

1 Mag. Universe!, Paris, 1835. 
C 2 



2O Flowers and Festivals 



The custom of strewing the floors of Churches and 
houses with rushes was in use long before the luxury 
of carpets was known ; even in the palaces of royalty 
the floors were covered with rushes or straw, some- 
times with sweet herbs intermingled. 

There are several entries in parish accounts, of pay- 
ments made for strewing the floors of Churches with 
rushes or straw, according to the season of the year. 

In- the Churchwarden's accounts of the parish of 
S. Mary-at-Hill, London, Brand, the antiquary, who 
was sometime rector of the parish, quotes the fol- 
lowing entry : 

1504. " Payde for 2 Berden Rysshes for the strewing 

the newe pewes . . . . . iijd." 

There are also entries in the parish books of 
Hailsham, Sussex, of charges for strewing the Church 
floor with straw or rushes ; and in the books of the 
City of Norwich, entries for pea-straw, and such 
strewing. 

Many other instances might be cited, besides those 
which have already been alluded to. 



Historical Notes 21 



Besides being employed at the festivals of the 
Church, or on ordinary occasions, rushes were used 
at weddings : 

"Full many maids, clad in their best array, 
In honour of the bride, come with their flaskets 
Fill'd full with flowers ; others in wicker baskets 
Bring from the marish rushes, to o'erspread 
The ground, whereon to Church the lovers tread." 

BROWNE'S Brit. Past. i. 2. 

The custom of bringing the rushes for the use of 
the Church upon some fixed day no doubt gave rise 
to the rush-bearing processions still prevalent in the 
north of England. 

The Rev. G. Miles Cooper, in his paper on the 
Abbey of Bayham, in the " Sussex Archaeological Col- 
lections," vol. ix., 1857, observes : " Though few are 
ignorant of this ancient custom, it may not perhaps 
be so generally known, that the strewing of Churches 
grew into a religious festival, dressed up in all that 
picturesque circumstance wherewith the Old Church 
well knew how to array its ritual. Remains of it 
linger to this day in remote parts of England. In 



22 Flozvers and Festivals 



Westmoreland, Lancashire, and districts of Yorkshire, 
there is still celebrated, between hay-making and 
harvest, a village fete called the Rush-bearing. Young 
women, dressed in white, and carrying garlands of 
flowers and rushes, walk in procession to the parish 
Church, accompanied by a crowd of rustics, with 
bands playing and banners flying. There they sus- 
pend their floral chaplets on the chancel rails, and 
the day is concluded with a simple feast. 

" The neighbourhood of Ambleside was, until 
lately, and may be still, one of the chief strong- 
holds of this popular practice; respecting which I 
will only add, as a curious fact, that up to the passing 
of the Municipal Reform Act, the town clerk of 
Norwich was accustomed to pay to the sub-sacrist 
of the Cathedral, an annual guinea for strewing the 
floor of the Cathedral with rushes on the Mayor's 
day, from the western door to the 'entrance into the 
choir. This is the most recent use of the custom 
which has come within my knowledge." 

In the " Herball to the Bible," 1587, mention is 



Historical Notes. 23 



made of sedge and rushes, " the which manie in the 
countrie doe use in somer-tyme to strewe their parlors 
or Chirches, as well for coolness as for pleasaunt 
smell." The species preferred was, doubtless, the 
Calamus aromaticus or Acorus calamus, which when 
bruised gives forth an odour somewhat resembling 
that of the myrtle. The sweet cane, and the Calamus 
mentioned in Scripture (Jer. vi. 20, and Exod. xxx. 
23), are probably the same as the Calamis aro- 
maticus. Inferior kinds were also used for the same 
purpose, when the sweet-scented rush was not to be 
obtained. 

The custom of decorating the Church with flowers 
and boughs is ancient and laudable ; and probably 
based upon the words of Isaiah (Ix. 13), "The glory 
of Lebanon shall come unto thee; the fir tree, the 
pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place 
of My sanctuary ;" and S. Paul says, that " every 
creature of God is good 2 ." Whatever there is most 

2 i Tim. iv. 4. 



24 Flowers and Festivals 



beautiful and good, and most prized among the works 
of His hands, should be given back to Him. 

" The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." 
Flowers, then the fairest remnants of the pristine 
beauty of Paradise should be especially offered in 
the Church to Him who is the "Rose of Sharon and 
the Lily of the Valley." 

The Rev. James S. Pollock, in his little tract upon 
Ritual, says : " We read in the Bible, that her temple 
was adorned with carved 'palm trees, and open flowers, 
within and without 3 .' 

" And when our Blessed Lord triumphantly entered 
Jerusalem, the people ' took branches of palm trees, 
and went forth to meet Him 4 .' We read also of 
the ' great multitude, which no man could number,' 
having 'palms in their hands*.' Jesus loved flowers, 
and all things beautiful ; He has told us to ' consider 
the lilies 6 .' There the 'young plants 7 ' that are 

3 i Kings vi. 29. 4 S. John xii. 1 3. 

3 Rev. vii. 9. S. Matt. vi. 18. 

7 Ps. cxliv. 12. 



Historical Notes 



growing up, should be used in decoration ; that we 
may see ' how they grow,' and that really ' green 
things ' may magnify Him that ' dwelleth in the 
gardens 8 .'" 

*' Cant. Sol. viii. 13. 



CROSSES 

' ' Let no one, then, be ashamed of these symbols of our salvation, 
of these signs." S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, Homily Iv. 

HPHERE are many symbolical forms, whose outlines 
suggested much pious meaning to our unlearned 
ancestors, of which we, their posterity, have nearly 
lost sight. Of these are monograms, crosses of varied 
shapes, mathematical outlines, and natural objects. 

The meaning conveyed by the various forms most 
useful for the present purpose, will now be explained 
in as clear and as short a manner as possible. 

Chiefest of all is the Cross : 

"That holy Crosse, whence thy salvation came, 
On which thy Saviour and thy sin did die." 

WOTTON. 



Crosses 27 

The various forms of Crosses are thus spoken of 
by old Fuller : " But chiefest of all (the symbols 
used in heraldry) is the Crosse ; which, though borne 
in arms before, yet was most commonly and gene- 
rally used since the Holy Warre. The plain crosse, 
or St. George's Crosse, I take it to be the mother of 
all the rest ; as plain song is much senior to any 
running of division l . Now, as by transposition of 
a few letters a world of words is made ; so by the 
varying of this Crosse in forme, colour, and metall 
(ringing as it were the changes) are made infinite 
several coats. The Cross of Jerusalem, or Jive crosses, 
most frequently used in this warre ; crosse patee, 
because the ends thereof are broad; fichee, whose 
bottom is sharp, to be fixed in the ground ; wav'ee, 
which those may justly weare who sailed thither 
through the miseries of the sea, or sea of miseries ; 
molinee, because like to the rind of a mill ; saltyree, or 

1 The plain song in the Church was the old Gregorian tones, 
and such like ; by the "running of division" is meant the more 
or less florid harmonies with which it was accompanied. 



28 Flowers and Festivals 



S. Andrew's Cross ; florid, or garlanded with flowers ; 
the crosse, crossed / besides the divers tricking or 
dressing; as piercing, voiding, fimbriating, ingrailing, 
couping and in fouxie and devices there is still a 
plus ultra ; insomuch that crosses alone, as they are 
variously disguised, are enough to distinguish all the 
several families of gentlemen in England." 

There are two principal forms of the Cross, the 
Latin and the Greek. 

The LATIN CROSS (Plate XXIV., fig. i) is the repre- 
sentation of the tree whereon our Lord suffered ; and 
it is this form which is most prevalent in the works of 
art of the Western Church. It was formerly called 
the Cross of the Passion, and is the Episcopal Cross. 

The GREEK CROSS (fig. 2) is less material and more 
spiritual in idea; it is said to represent our Lord's 
ministry; and also its four equal arms represent the 
glad tidings of the Gospel spread all over the world, 
as taught by the four evangelists, and symbolized 
by the four arms pointing in the direction of the four 
winds of heaven. 



Crosses 29 

"The Latins, more material in sentiment than 
the Greeks, preferred the actual form ; the Greeks, 
more spiritual than the Latins, idealized the reality." 
Or, as another writer eloquently expresses himself, 
" The Latin Cross, from its form, speaks more directly 
of the atonement; representing more faithfully, pro- 
bably, the very instrument on which our Lord suffered. 
The Greek Cross we rather read as the emblem 
of Christianity in general the religion of the Cross." 
The Greek Cross is eminently distinguished by its 
ornamental character; nearly all the representations 
of the Cross, either heraldic or architectural, being 
modifications of this form; and, on the other hand, 
when the Cross is introduced as an accessory into 
pictures, it almost invariably takes the Latin form. 

CROSS OF CALVARY (fig. 3) belongs to the Latin 
type ; its peculiarity consists in the Cross being 
elevated upon three steps, which are said to repre- 
sent, symbolically, the three Christian graces, Faith, 
Hope, and Charity. 

CROSS, PATRIARCHAL, drawn with two horizontal 



30 Floivcrs and Festivals 



bars; and, although said to belong to the Latin 
type of Cross, may also belong to the Greek type, 
or rather to both, as its form is a union of both 
types ; it is also called the Archbishop's Cross, or 
Cross of Lorraine. 

CROSS CROSSLET (fig. 4) is composed of four Latin 
crosses. 

CROSS OF JERUSALEM, or CROSS POTENT (fig. 5), is 
the unity of four Tau crosses (for a description of 
which see p. 31); and, with four Greek crosses 
between the right angles of the four arms, forms 
the heraldic coat of Jerusalem ; or, described according 
to technical phraseology, would be, on a field Argent, 
a cross potent, between four crosslets (little crosses), 
or. This is in violation of the heraldic law, of metal 
not being displayed upon metal ; but the gold upon 
silver is supposed to have been adopted in allusion 
to Psalm Ixviii. 13. 

CROSS PATEE (fig. 6). This is frequently drawn 
and mistaken for the Maltese Cross, which it resem- 
bles in form ; but 



Crosses 3 1 

The MALTESE CROSS (fig. 7) has eight points, 
which are said to be symbolical of the eight beati- 
tudes. (See S. Matt chap, v.) 

S. ANDREW'S CROSS (fig. 8). The national Cross 
of Scotland, adopted in consequence of a tradition 
that S. Andrew first preached Christianity in that 
country. Combined with the Cross of S. George, 
it forms the Union Jack, so dear to every lover of 
his country. 

TAU CROSS, or S. ANTHONY'S CROSS (fig. 9). The 
Tau Cross is called from the Greek form and name 
for the letter T. It derives some interest from the 
tradition attached to it, as being the. Cross upon 
which our Lord was slain, rather than upon the Latin 
Cross. It is of very ancient origin, being frequently 
found among Egyptian hieroglyphics. And the 
Mark spoken of by the Prophet Ezekiel (chap. ix. 
v. 4) is supposed to be the Tau Cross. 

The old writers on Symbolism saw in the Tau 
Cross the ideal precursor of the real Cross. The 
Cross with three branches or limbs they considered 



32 Flowers and Festivals 



to be the " anticipatory Cross ; the typical Cross ; the 
Cross of the Old Testament." It was considered by 
the Ancients as the emblem of eternal life. 

The CROSS OF S. GEORGE (fig. 2) is of the Greek 
form, and was anciently the badge of the kings of 
England, and therefore adopted by their retainers. 
The shield of the City of London still has this cross 
upon it, with the sword added ; the sword being 
the emblem of S. Paul, the patron saint of the City. 

THE CROSS OF IONA, or IRISH CROSS (fig. 10), is 
said to be the most ancient form used in this country, 
as evidenced by the antique way-side early Memorial 
Crosses being of this form. Many writers contend 
that because this style of Cross partakes more of 
the Greek character than of the Latin, it argues an 
Eastern rather than a Western origin for the intro- 
duction of Christianity into Great Britain. 

The CROSS OF CONSTANTINE (fig. n) is formed of 
the two first letters (x and p), with which the name 
of Christ is spelt in Greek. Although called a 
Cross, it partakes more of the character of a mono- 



Crosses 33 

gram. It is called the Cross of Constantine, because 
it was used by that Emperor as a device upon his 
shield, and upon his coins. It is found frequently 
upon the sepulchres in the catacombs of Rome. 
It was a symbol much used by the early Christians, 
(this monogram was very often used in writing the 
name of Christ), and is found even in English 
documents so late as the year 1493 ; for, in the 
Chronicle of the Church of S. Martin at Leicester 2 , 
there is an item to the following effect : 

" It' ffor beryng of the ffertur 3 & for torches on 

Corp. Xpi (that is, Corpus Christi) day . . ijs. vjd." 

The Greek x is sometimes used in the present day in 
writing abbreviations : thus Christmas is often written 
Xmas. 

The MONOGRAM .CROSS (Plate XXIV., fig. 12) is a 
curious emblem of Christ, as King of Heaven, Leader 
of Men, Prince of Peace, and the Light, of the World. 

In using Crosses for decoration, it might be ad- 

2 Compiled by Thomas North, 1866. 

3 The Consecrated Wafer. 



34 Flowers and Festivals 



visable to use the Tau Cross for all festivals during 
Advent (excepting upon S. Andrew's Day, when the 
Cross proper to that Saint would be most appro- 
priate), the Greek Cross during Lent, and the Latin 
for Easter; and afterwards, during the Christian 
year, because the Tau, being the anticipatory Cross, 
is best used to symbolize our Lord's coming; the 
Greek being emblematic of His ministry, and the 
Latin of His glorification. 

The Cross is said, by Mosheim, to be, in chemical 
language, the emblem of light; because it contains 
within its figure the forms of the three letters, of 
which the Latin word Lux (light) is composed 

[+' L- J+]. 



EMBLEMS OF OUR LORD AND OF THE 
SAINTS. 

' ' Haply that emblematic lore, 

Which roused our sires to zeal sublime, 
Instruction e'en on us may pour 
Who linger in the dregs of time.' 1 '' 

"VOICES FROM THE EARLY CHURCH." 

"IV /T OST of the Emblems which are used to typify 
our Blessed Saviour, have been already spoken of 
in the chapter on Symbols, in addition to which the 
emblems of the Passion are sometimes employed ; 
these are, the nails, sponge on a reed spear, crown 
of thorns, hammer and pincers, the "superscription 
of his accusation," and the bleeding heart 

S. ANDREW first saint in the Christian year; his 
D ^ 



36 Emblems of 'our Lord 
* 



emblem is a cross decussate, being formed of two 
pieces of wood crossing each other in the form of the 
letter X, that being the shape of the instrument of 
his death ; or, as others say, he was crucified upon a 
cross of the usual form, but the ground being loose, 
the cross gave way when he was lifted up, and sup- 
ported itself upon the foot and one of the side arms *. 

S. THOMAS has a spear or arrow, sometimes a 
builder's rule or square. 

S. JOHN THE DIVINE as an Apostle, has a cup with 
a serpent issuing out of it, in allusion to the cup of 
sorrow which he drank, according to our Lord's 
promise ; or to the cup having poison, which by his 
prayer issued from it in the form of a serpent ; also 
the eagle, who, soaring above the earth, symbolizes 
S. John as Evangelist, because he records events 
pointing to the Divine nature of our Lord. 

S. PAUL. His emblem is a sword v his attribute in a 
double sense; it signifies the manner of his mar- 

1 Southey. 



and of the Saints 37 



tyrdom, and it is emblematical of the good fight 
fought by the faithful Christian armed "with the 
sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God V 

S. MATTHIAS. An axe, or a spear or lance, and a 
book. 

S. MARK has a lion, the emblem of the Resurrec- 
tion; S. Mark being termed the Historian of the 
Resurrection. The lion is chosen, from the legend 
that the lion is always born dead, and is after three 
days roared over and licked into life by its father. 

"S. PHILIP. A long staff, surmounted by a Cross, 
sometimes of the Tau form, (see Plate XXIV., fig. 9,) 
and also a double Cross. 

S. JAMES THE LESS. A club of peculiar shape, 
called a fuller's bat, which was the emblem of his 
martyrdom. 

S. BARNABAS. A pilgrim's staff or a stone. 

S. PETER. Two keys, one of gold, the other of 
silver; emblematic of the "power of the keys" to 

2 Eph. vi. 17. 



3 8 Emblems of our Lord 



absolve and to bind ; and thus, as it were, to open the 
gates of heaven and of hell. 

S. JAMES THE GREAT. A pilgrim's staff, with a 
gourd attached to it ; also a scallop shell. 

S. BARTHOLOMEW. His proper emblem is the flay- 
ing knife by which he met his death. 

S. MATTHEW as an Apostle, has a book, or a 
purse, in allusion to his calling ; as an Evangelist his 
emblem is a man, because his gospel dwells more 
particularly upon the human nature of our Lord. 

S. LUKE. A calf or young ox, the emblem of 
sacrifice ; in allusion to his description of our Lord, 
more especially in His priestly character. 

S. SIMON. A saw, or two or more fishes. 

S. JUDE. A club or a ship. 

S. Hilary. Usually represented with three books, 
and with his feet on serpents; the books emblematical 
of his opposition to Arianism, and the serpents of the 
false doctrine he overthrew : he sometimes has a 
Patriarchal Cross. 

S. Prisca. Represented as a young girl, with a 



and of the Saints 39 



palm branch and a lion at her feet, sometimes with a 
sword in her hand, and an eagle hovering near. 

S. Fabian. A book and a palm branch, with the 
triple crown upon his head. 

6". Agnes is almost always represented with a lamb, 
either by her side or in her hand, from a fanciful word 
likeness between Agnus and Agnes ; or it may have 
been given her as an emblem of her spotless purity. 

S. Vincent is represented as a deacon, holding in 
his hand a gridiron full of spikes, and a raven hover- 
ing near. 

S. Blasius. His emblem is a wool comb. 

S. Agatha has usually a pair of pincers, having a 
nipple between the teeth; having reference to her 
martyrdom. 

6 1 . Valentine has a true lover's knot for his device. 

6". David. The harp is this saint's emblem. 

S. Chad has no distinctive emblem. 

S. Perpetua is generally represented with a cow 
standing near her. 

S. Gregory has a dove. 



40 Emblems of our Lord 



S. Edward. A cup and a dagger. 

S. Benedict. A cup with a snake issuing from it, 
emblematical of poison. 

S. Richard. A plough or a plough-share. 

,S. Ambrose. A hive of bees. 

S. Alphege is represented with his chasuble full of 
stones, and sometimes with a battle-axe in his hand, 
the implement by which his life was terminated. 

6". George with the dragon, is well known, although 
variously represented ; the shield with his Cross is 
perhaps his best emblem. 

S. Dunstan. His emblem is a pair of tongs; also a 
harp, upon which instrument he is said to have been 
exceedingly skilful. 

S. Augustine has no distinctive emblem. 

.S. Nicomede. A spiked club. 

S. Boniface has for his emblem a scourge, or a 
book pierced through with a sword. 

S. Alban A sword and a cross. 

S. Swithun. In an ancient wooden stick calendar, 
or clog almanack, as it is called, this saint is repre- 



and of the Saints 41 



sented by a series of wavy lines, intended to figure a 
shower of rain. 

S. Margaret is usually shown handsomely dressed, 
piercing a dragon, who is under her feet, with a long 
cross. 

S. Mary Magdalen. Her emblem is the "alabaster 
box of ointment." 

S. Anne. Her emblem is a dove with a ring in its 
beak. 

S. Lawrence. A gridiron. 

S. Augustine of Hippo. A heart in hand. 

S. Giles is usually represented with a crosier, and 
a hind with its fore-feet in his lap ; the hind's neck 
is sometimes pierced with an arrow. 

S. Enurchus. A dove alighting on the saint's head. 

S. Lambert. A palm branch and a dart or spear. 

S. Cyprian. A book and a sword. 

S. Michael. A spear and a pair of scales. Diony- 
sius, the Areopagite, says there are three great divi- 
sions of angels ; each division is subdivided into three 
orders or choirs, thus making nine in all. These are : 



42 Emblems of our Lord 



I. COUNCILLORS of the Most High, who con- 
sist of: 

1. Seraphim, represented as covered all 

over with eyes. 

2. Cherubim, standing on wheels, and each 

one having six wings. 

3. Thrones, represented with a throne or 

tower. 

II. GOVERNORS, who rule the stars and regulate 

the universe : 

4. Dominations, represented with a sword, 

triple crown, and sceptre. 

5. Virtues, in complete armour, carrying a 

battle-axe with a pennon flying from it, 
or a crown and censer. 

6. Powers, binding or beating devils, or 

holding a baton. 

III. MESSENGERS of God's will : 

7. Princedoms or principalities, in full ar- 

mour, holding a lily. 



and of the Saints 43 



8. Archangels, who are S. Michael, S. Ra- 

phael, with a pilgrim's staff, and S. 
Uriel. 

9. Angels. A wand. 

S. Jerome. A Cardinal's hat, and a lion. 

S. Remigius. A dove with an oil-cruse in its beak. 

S. Faith. A bundle of rods, or a brazen bed in her 
hand. 

S. Denys is represented as a Bishop, headless, 
carrying his head in his hand. 

S. Etheldreda. A crosier, a crown, and sceptre. 

S. Crispin. A pair of shoes. 

S. Leonard. The emblems of this saint are chains 
and fetters. 

S. Martin. A cloak and a sword. 

S. Brititis carries burning coals in his hand. 

.S 1 . Machutus. No emblem. 

S. Hugh. A swan. 

S. Cecilia. Organ-pipes are the usual emblems of 
this saint. 

S. Edmund. Arrows. 



44 Emblems of our Lord 



S. Clement. A pot and an anchor; the former is 
connected with S. Clement in some unexplained way. 
There was anciently a custom of going about on 
S. Clement's night to beg drink to make merry with. 
The latter emblem is the instrument of the saint's 
martyrdom ; he was cast into the sea with an anchor 
about his neck. 

S. Catherine. A wheel with spikes. S. Catherine 
was at one time the most popular saint in England, 
as may be instanced by the many inns which have 
for their sign her emblem ; it is also not an un- 
common armorial bearing. 

S. Nicholas. Three purses, a book, an anchor, or a 
ship. 

S. Lucy. A lamp; a dish with a pair of eyes 
upon it. 

S. Silvester. A mitre, of which he is said to be 
the originator. 



and of the Saints 45 



AN EXPLANATION OF MYSTICAL AND SYMBOLICAL 
FORMS. 

Fig. 3, plate XXIII. is an ancient monogram of 
the Holy Trinity; it is very frequently met with 
in mediaeval times. 

OTHER SYMBOLICAL FORMS. 

THE FIVE-POINTED STAR, called by Bishop Kennett 
the Pentangle of Solomon, which was used on the 
banner of Antiochus Soter, was employed all over 
Asia in ancient times as a charm against witchcraft ; it 
is also called the Pentalpha, because it contains five 
repetitions of the letter A, and the endless triangle. 
It was by Pythagoras used as an emblem of health. 
The Jews understood this symbol to mean safety; and, 
to this day, the English shepherd cuts it on the grass, 
or in the green sward, little thinking of its ancient 
signification ; the entire figure being put for V)fflQ( 
as representing the Greek characters vyeia, health. 

Bishop Kennett, quoted above, remarks that in his 



46 Emblems of our Lord 



time a popular opinion prevailed, that if this figure 
be placed against the body, the angles will point to 
the places where our Blessed Lord was wounded; and 
so there arose an old superstitious conceit that the 
figure was a Fuga Demonum the devils were afraid 
of it 

" This mark was used, as the sign of the ^ is now, 
at the beginning of letters and bookes, for good luck's 
sake ; and the women amongst the Jewes (Dr. Ralph 
Bathurst tell me) did make this mark on the children's 
chrysome cloathes " (a curious misapplication of the 
word "chrysome," for Jews were not christened). "My 
old friend, Mr. Lancelot Morehouse, rector of Pert- 
wood, Wilts, was wont to marke this mark at the top 
of his missive letters, as the Roman Catholiques doe 
the <i%\. And he told me (1660) that the Greeke 
Christians did so 8 ." 

THE " MAGICAL PENTALPHA " is represented in the 
west window, south aisle, of Westminster Abbey. 

3 Aubrey. 



and of the Saints 47 



THE DOUBLE TRIANGLE, or SIX-POINTED STAR, 
symbolizes Him who is the Author of the elements ; 
the intersecting triangles being anciently held to 
figure the elements of fire and water. 

THE SEVEN-POINTED STAR has reference to Rev. v. 
6. This star divides the honour with the five-pointed 
star, in being called the Star of Bethlehem. 

THE NINE-POINTED STAR alludes to the fruit of 
the Holy Spirit, named in S. Paul's Epistle to the 
Galatians, chap. v. verse 22. 

THE TRIANGLE. Emblem of the Triune God, and 
of Christ Himself. Thus : 

In the beginning was the Word. 



J" 
\ 

o v 



THE TRIANGLE WITHIN A CIRCLE is the emblem of 
the everlasting Trinity. 



Emblems of our Lord 



THE CIRCLE, anciently represented by a serpent 
with its tail in its mouth, is the emblem of Eternity 
and of Eternal God. Hermes Trismegistus says, 
" God is a circle, whose centre is every where, but 
whose circumference is nowhere to be found." 

VESICA PISCES. A term applied to the aureole, 
from its fancied resemblance to a fish ; the nimbus is 
the glory round the head, which is usually of a cir- 
cular form ; but the nimbus of the Eternal Father is 
often in the form of a triangle, and that of the Trinity 
an emanation of light, the rays of which form the 
three arms of a cross. The nimbus of the Virgin is 
usually a simple ring, sometimes a crown or diadem ; 
but the aureole following the shape of the body is 
usually an elongated oval, with sharp points; and, from 
a supposed resemblance to a fish, has been called 
"Vesica Pisces." It has also been called "the divine 
oval," and the "mystical almond;" mystical, as re- 
ferring to some symbolical signification ; but rather 
fanciful, if the only reason be that the almond is sup- 



and of the Saints 49 



posed to be the emblem of virginity and self-pro- 
duction. 

This form is much used to enclose figures of Jesus 
Christ or of the Saints, and is frequently the outline 
most preferred for the seals of religious houses or 
other ecclesiastical bodies. 

THE FISH, one of the earliest symbols, seems to be 
entirely of Christian origin. It was held to represent 
Christ Himself, whom many ancient writers call " The 
Fish 4 ," 'lrj(rov<s XJOIOTOS Oeov wos Swrty/a, Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God, the Saviour. 

" 'Jesus Christ, the Son of God, 

The Saviour ' words which cheer'd the eyes 
Of martyrs, as unmoved they trod 
Their fiery pathway to the skies." 

VOICES OF THE EARLY CHURCH. 

The initial letters of the Greek sentence form the 
word 'Ix#v?, a fish. " It is also symbolical of the 
regenerating waters of baptism, and typifies the be- 

4 " History of our Lord," Mrs. Jameson, vol. i. p. 10. 

E 



Emblems of our Lord 



liever as the ' little fish ' caught by those whom our 
Lord appointed to be fishers of men." 

THE DOVE is the emblem of the Holy Spirit, and 
anciently represented innocence. Cant. vi. 9. 

THE ANCHOR is the emblem of hope. Heb. vi. 19. 

THE PALM AND OLIVE BRANCHES are respectively 
held to be the emblems of victory and peace. 

AGNUS DEI. S. John i. 29. 

THE PELICAN is the emblem of the Body and 
Blood of our Lord, and of His atoning sacrifice, from 
the popular tradition that she feeds her young with 
her blood; but a more wonderful purpose was anciently 
ascribed to the bird, which we find related in a book 
printed in the year 1685, called "The Magick of Ki- 
rani, King of Persia," in which it says : " c Pa//.<tos is 
a bird, by the river Nile, which is called a pelican, 
and lives in the fens of ^Egypt She loves her brood 
extremely well ; when, therefore, the young ones are 
hatched, and grown a little, they continually beat the 
old ones in the face; but they, not being able to 
endure it, cuff their young ones, and kill them ; then, 



and of the Saints 51 



moving the bowels of compassion over them, they 
lament their young ones which they killed ; the same 
day, therefore, the mother, to get her children, tears 
open her sides; and, shedding her own blood over her 
children, she revives them, and they rise again, in a 
certain natural manner." 

THE PHCENIX is the emblem of the Resurrection 
from the Dead, usually depicted with the motto 
" Resurgam," I shall arise. 

" ' I shall arise,' O wavering heart, 

From this take comfort and be strong ; 
' I shall arise,' nor always grope, 

In darkness, mingling right with wrong ; 
From tears of pain, from shades of doubt, 

And wants within that blindly call, 
I shall arise, in God's own light, 
Behold the sum and truth of all." 

THE CROWN, the emblem of supremacy, and of 
victory. As the emblem of a Martyr, a palm branch 
is usually depicted with it. 

THE LETTERS ALPHA AND OMEGA (A fi), are 

much employed figuratively, to represent Him who is 
E 2 



5 2 Emblems of our L ord 



the "beginning and the ending, the first and the 
last." 

It has been already shown, in speaking of the 
Cross of Constantine, how that the name of Christ 
has been made to assume the form of a Cross. There 
yet remains to speak of the name of Jesus, as it is 
used in the form of a monogram. This form, which is 
variously made (see the drawings on Plate XXI II.), 
is simply the abbreviated form of the Holy name, the 
label which is seen over the middle letter being the 
sign of contraction. The monogram is of Greek 
origin, the letters I. H. S., or I. H. C., being the 
English representation of the Greek letters, J E S. 
This form is mostly found represented in stained 
glass, carved work, or manuscripts, in the manner 
represented by figs, i and 2, Plate XXIII., when the 
mark of contraction is properly shown ; but sometimes 
it is drawn with capital letters, and then with a cross 
through the letter H. From this circumstance has 
probably arisen the notion that these letters are the 
initials of the words, "Jesus Hominum Salvator," or 



and of the Saints 53 



"Jesus Hominum Consolator;" that is, Jesus, the 
Saviour or Consoler of men ; or, as it has been still 
more erroneously said to mean I have suffered. The 
cypher is of Greek, not of Latin or English origin. 
It was formerly the custom to place this monogram at 
the beginning of the alphabet in ancient horn-books, 
and at the head of documents and parish accounts. 
Mr. North, in his " Chronicle of the Church of 
S. Martin, at Leicester 5 ," speaking of this subject, 
remarks : " The placing of a sacred name or mono- 
gram at the head of a document was not at all 
unusual at the period now under notice (A.D. 1546), 
nor indeed at a much later date. Thus we have here 
J. H. C. interlaced. At the head of the accounts of the 
Churchwardens of Melton Mowbray, made viij. De- 
cember, 3 Edward vj., is the word 'Jesus;' and, not 
to multiply instances, the accounts of the Chamber- 
lains of the borough of Leicester for the year 1578-9, 
and several subsequent years, are headed ' Ema- 
nuell.'" This custom is curiously referred to by 
s Page 90. 



54 Emblems of our Lord and of the Saints 

Shakspeare, in his Henry VI. (part ii., act iv., 
scene 2) : 

"Jack Cade: What is thy name ? 

"Clerk: Emmanuel. 

"Dick: They used to write it on the top of letters " 

Charles Lamb, in his " Essays of Elia," tells us of 
the volumes of accounts at the Old South Sea House, 
"with pious sentences at the beginning, without 
which our religious ancestors never ventured to open 
a book of business or bill of lading;" this latter 
practice, and occasionally at the commencement of 
modern wills, being all that survives of this worthy 
custom. Whether the use of these sacred devices 
and words was to attest the truthfulness and correct- 
ness of what followed ; whether they were used as a 
kind of benediction by the writer, or whether their 
use is only an instance of the blending of the religious 
with the secular, which was so prominent a feature in 
all the relations of life in past times, is a question now 
difficult of solution. 



FLOWERS AND PLANTS DEDICATED TO 
SAINTS. 



'A lesson in each flower, 
A story in each tree and bower. 
In every herb on which we tread 
Are -written words, which, rightly read, 
Will lead us from earth 's fragrant sod 
To hope, and holiness to God." 



T N Ancient Calendars, nearly every day in the year 
was dedicated to some Saint, who had his own legend 
and emblem. Many Saints were known by some 
peculiarity, either connected with, or which was 
supposed more or less to influence, every-day life. 

Flowers have, from the earliest times, been con- 
nected with the great festivals of the Church, or 
with the Saints of the Calendar. It is to be 



Flowers and Plants 



observed that the flowers dedicated to, or connected 
with the names of, certain Saints, are generally in 
blossom at or near the time of their festivals. 
Whether this was originally arranged, more especially 
to enforce the teaching of the Church and of its 
doctrine, by the lives of its holy men, thus inti- 
mately associating natural objects with spiritual 
matters; or whether, from the fact of the flowers 
being in bloom at the times of the various festivals, 
and being thus connected in the minds of the simple, 
independently of any direct teaching from 'the 
Church, is not now to be ascertained; but, be this 
as it may, whether they were originally objects of 
superstition, or whether our forefathers "loved to 
discover in each opening bud some holy symbol of 
their Blessed Lord, or of His Saints ;" still it is to 
be hoped that the subject is not without interest 
for us, their posterity, in these more practical days. 

"And thus, with many feelings, many thoughts, 

We make a meditative joy, and find 
Religious meanings in the forms of Nature." 



dedicated to Saints 57 



The order here followed is the order of the 
Calendar of the Prayer Book ; and it has been 
thought advisable to add short accounts of the 
lives of many of the Saints. 



Jan. i. The Circumcision of our Lord. Laurus- 

tinus. Viburnum tinus. 

The Laurustinus was said to be dedicated to 
S. Faine, an Irish Abbess, in the sixth century; 
and in the following lines her name is mentioned : 

"Whether the weather be snow or raine, 
We are sure to see the flower of S. Faine. 
Raine comes but seldom, and often snow, 
And yet this viburnam is sure to blow." 

Jan. 6. The Epiphany. Common Star of Bethlehem. 

Ornithogalum. 

The roots of the broad-leaved species are much 
consumed by the lower classes, as an article of 
diet, in many parts of the country. 



58 Flowers and Plants 



Jan. 8. S. Lucian, Priest and Martyr. Common 
Laurel. Laurus. 

Eusebius states that S. Lucian was a learned 
presbyter of the Church at Antioch, a man ex- 
cellent in all Christian graces, more particularly for 
abstinence. Being long exercised in the sacred 
discipline, he was brought to the city of the 
Nicomedians, when the Emperor (Maximinianus 
Valerius) was there; and having recited, before 
the governor of the city, an Apology for the Chris- 
tian religion, which he had composed, was cast 
into prison, and was killed there. 
Jan. 13. S. Hilary, Bishop and Confessor. Barren 
Strawberry. Fragaria sterilis. 

S. Hilary was Bishop of Poictiers, and champion 
of the orthodox doctrine, against the Arians. He 
died A.D. 367. 

The first law term in the year is called, after 
this saint, Hilary term. 

The ancient Ecclesiastical Canons forbade liti- 
gation during certain holy seasons of the Church, 



dedicated to Saints 59 



such as Advent and Christmas, which gave rise 
to the winter vacation ; during Lent and Easter, 
which created that of spring; the time of Pente- 
cost, which produced the third; and the long 
vacation, between Midsummer and Michaelmas, to 
allow for the harvest. 

The portions of time which were not included 
in these prohibited seasons, fell naturally into a 
fourfold division ; and, from a festival or saint's 
day which immediately preceded their commence- 
ment, were denominated the Terms of S. Hilary, 
Easter, Trinity, and S. Michael *. 
Jan. 1 8. S. Prisca, Virgin and Martyr. Four-toothed 
Moss. Bryum pellucidum. 

S. Prisca was a Roman lady of the time of 
Claudius, who, refusing to abjure the Christian 
religion and offer sacrifice, was dreadfully tortured 
and afterwards beheaded, in the year of our 
Lord 47. 

1 Stephen's "Notes on the Book of Common Prayer." 



60 Flowers and Plants 



Jan. 20. S. Fabian, Bishop and Martyr. Large dead 

Nettle. Lamium garganicum. 
S. Fabian was Bishop of Rome, and received 
the crown of martyrdom under the Emperor Decius, 

A.D. 233. 

Jan. 21. S. Agnes, Virgin and Martyr. Black Helle- 
bore or Christmas Rose. Helleborus niger^flore 
albo. 

"S. Agnes has always been looked upon," says 
Butler, " as a special patroness of purity." She 
suffered martyrdom about the year 304. 
Jan. 22. St. Vincent, Martyr. Early Witlow Grass. 

Draba verna. 

S. Vincent was a Spanish martyr, who endured 
death by fire in the year 304. 
Jan. 25. Conversion of S. Paul. Winter Hellebore. 

Helleborus hyemalis. 

S. Paul's day was anciently considered a remark- 
able day ; for, upon the state of the weather upon 
that day, our ancestors pretended to be able to 
foretell the future fortunes of the year ; alike as 



dedicated to Saints 61 



regarded the weather, the harvest, and the cattle 
but, as Gay says, 

"Let no such vulgar tales debase thy mind, 
Nor Paul nor Swithun rule the clouds and wind." 



dfebruarg. 

Feb. 2. Purification of the Blessed Virgin. Snowdrop. 

Galanthus nivalis. 
Feb. 3. S. Blasius, Bishop and Martyr. Great Water 

Moss. Fontinalis antepyretica. 
S. Blasius was Bishop of Sebaste, in Cappadocia ; 
a man of great learning. He was put to death 
by Agricolaus, the President under Diocletian, 
abour 316. He is the patron saint of the wool 
combers. 
Feb. 5. S. Agatha, a Sicilian Virgin and Martyr. 

Common Primrose. Primula vulgaris. 
Feb. 14. S. Valentine, Bishop and Martyr. Yellow 

Crocus. Crocus mcesiacus. 
S. Valentine was Bishop of Interamnae. After 



62 Flowers and Plants 



a year's imprisonment at Rome, he was beaten 

with clubs, and beheaded in the Flaminian way, 

about the year 271. He was so famous for his 

love and charity, that the custom of choosing 

Valentines upon his festival took its rise from him *. 

Feb. 24. S. Matthias, Apostle. Mezereon. Daphne 

mezereum. 

" Though leafless, well attired and thick beset 
With blushing wreaths, investing every spray." 

COWPER. 



March i. S. David, Archbishop of Menevia. Leek. 

Allium porrum. 

S. David was of the Royal family of the Britons, 
being uncle to the great King Arthur, and son 
of Xanthus, Prince of Wales. He died about 
A.D. 642. 

March 2. S. Cedde or Chad, Bishop of Lichfield. 
Dwarf Cerastium. Cerastium pennilum. 

3 Wheatley. 



dedicated to Saints 63 



S. Chad was founder and first Bishop of Lich- 
field. He died during the prevalence of a pesti- 
lence, A.D. 673. 

March 7. S. Perpetua, Martyr. Early Daffodil. Nar- 
cissus pseudo-narcissus simplex. 

"Daffodils, 

That come before the swallow dares, and take 
The winds of March with beauty." 

SHAKSPEARE. 

Herrick draws a moral from a Daffodil, in the 
following words :- 

" When a daffodil I see, 
Hanging down his head t' wards me. 
Guesse I may what I must be : 
First, I shall decline my head ; 
Secondly, I shall be dead ; 
Lastly, safely buried." 

HESPERIDES. 

S. Perpetua was martyred during the reign of the 
Emperor Severus A.D. 205. 

March 1 2. S. Gregory, Martyr, Bishop of Rome, and 
Confessor. Channelled Ixia. Ixia Bulbocodium. 



64 Flowers and Plants 



S. Gregory was born in Rome, in 540, of noble 
parentage. He was consecrated Pope in 590. He 
restored the ancient missal; and the chant now 
called the Gregorian Chant is also the work of 
this holy man. He died A.D. 604. 

March 18. S. Edward, King of the West Saxons. 
Great Leopard Bane. Doronicum pardalionetes. 

S. Edward was murdered, by order of his mother- 
in-law, at Corfe Castle, A.D. 978. 

March 21. S. Benedict, Abbot. Herb Bennet, Ge- 
non urbanum : and Way Bennet, or Wild Rye, 
Hordeum murinum. Also Bulbous Fumitory. 
Fumaria bulbosa. 

S. Benedict was born at Norcia, in Italy. He 
founded the order called by his name, in the year 
529. He died March 21, 542. 
March 25. The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 

Mary. Marigold. Calendula offirinalis. 
A great many flowers were in olden times dedi- 
cated to the Blessed Mother of our Lord, which 



dedicated to Saints 65 



may be easily traced by the old English names, 
such as Lady's fingers, and " Lady's smocks, so 
silver white," as Shakspeare calls the Cuckoo flower, 
Dames' violet, Ladies' mantle, Ladies' slipper, 
Maiden-hair, and many others. 

The Marigold is said to have been named from 
the fact of its being in bloom on all festivals held 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin. "At Candlemas 
(February 2) in warm climates, the old last year's 
plants will show a few flowers. Even in our 
climate, a few flowers appear about Lady-tide 
(March 25). The full flowering takes place about 
the Visitation (July 2). The young plants flower 
about the time of the Assumption (August 15). 
Seedlings of the same year will flower about the 
Nativity of our Lady (September 8) ; and they 
continue to flower through the whole period, 
including November 21 and December 8 thus 
blooming on all the Virgin's feasts V 

3 " Quarterly Review," July, 1863. 

F 



66 Flowers and Plants 



April 3. S. Richard, Bishop of Chichester. Ever- 
green Alkanet. Anchusa sempennrens. 
S. Richard was born at Wiche, in Worcester- 
shire ; studied at Oxford, Paris, and Bologna ; was 
consecrated in 1245 ; and died at Dover in 1253. 
April 4. S. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan. Meadow 

Orchis. Orchis mascula. 

S. Ambrose was born about the year 340 at 
Treves. His works are still held in great respect, 
especially the glorious Te Deutn, said to have 
been composed by him, and first used at the 
baptism of his celebrated convert, S. Augustine. 
He governed the Church with great piety for about 
twenty years, and died in 396. 
April 19. S. Alphege, Archbishop and Martyr. 

Ursine Garlic. Allium ursinum. 
S. Alphege was Archbishop of Canterbury in 
the year 1006, and was murdered by the Danes 
at Greenwich, A.D. 1012. 



dedicated to Saints 67 



April 23. S. George, Martyr. Harebell. Hyacinthus 
non-scriptus. 

" On S. George's day, when blue is worn, 
The blue harebells the fields adorn." 

S. George, the patron saint of England, was born 
in Cappadocia, and suffered for the sake of his 
religion, A.D. 290, under the Emperor Diocletian, 
in whose army he had previously served. 

The Encounter of S. George with the Dragon, in 
which he is usually represented, is symbolical of the 
triumph of the Christian Hero over the power of evil, 
which S. John beheld under the form of a dragon. 
Rev. xii. 7 9. 

April 25. S. Mark, Apostle and Martyr, Clarimond 
Tulip. Tulipa prcecox, 

S. Mark is traditionally said to have been the 
man bearing a pitcher of water mentioned in his 
own Gospel. S. Mark xiv. 13 15. He was mar- 
tyred A.D. 68. 



F 2 



68 Flowers and Plants 



May i. S. Philip, Apostle and Martyr. Red Tulip. 

Tulipa Gesneri. 

S. Philip is supposed to have been the first of 
our Lord's Apostles, and to have died at Hierapolis, 
in Phrygia. 

S. James the Less, Apostle and Martyr. Red 
Campion, Lychnis dioica rubra; and Red Bachelor's 
Buttons, Lychnis dioica plena. 

S. James was martyred in the year of our Re- 
demption 62, by being cast from a high tower; and, 
not being then dead, was despatched while praying 
for his murderers, with clubs and stones. 
May 3. Invention of the Cross. Poetic Narcisse. 

Narcissus poeticus. 
Also 

" Against the day of Holy-Crosse, 
The crow-foot gilds the flowerie grass." 

May 6. S. John Evangelist, ante Port. Latin. No 
flower. 



dedicated to Saints 69 



This festival was instituted in memory of S. John's 
miraculous deliverance from the furnace of boiling 
oil prepared for his destruction by the orders of 
Domitian, which he was thrown into, but escaped 
from unhurt. 
May 19. S. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Monk's-hood. Aconitum Napdlus. 
S. Dunstan was born at Glastonbury, of which 
monastery he became Abbot ; and died Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 998. 
May 26. S. Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Rhododendron. Rhododendron ponticum. 
The Canterbury bell is also said to be dedicated 
to S. Augustine, but without any show of reason. 

S. Augustine was consecrated " Bishop of the 
English," and fixed his see at Canterbury. He 
died in 604; after having laid a firm foundation upon 
which to build the jurisdiction of the see of Rome 
over this country. 

May 27. Ven. Bede, Presbyter. Yellow Bachelor's 
Buttons. Ranunculus acris plenus. 



70 Flowers and Plants 



He was bom at Jarrow, in Northumberland, 
A.D. 673 ; and'is said to have expired, dictating the 
last words of a translation of S. John's Gospel, in 
the year 735. He is called the Lamp of the 
English Church. 



June i. S. Nicomede, Priest and Martyr. Single 

Yellow Rose. Rosa lutea. 

He was a scholar to S. Peter, and discovered 
himself to be a Christian by his honourably burying 
one Felicula, a martyr. He was beaten to death 
with leaden plummets for refusing to sacrifice to 
the gods, A.D. 90. 
June 5. S. Boniface, Bishop of Mentz, and Martyr. 

Three-leaved Rose. Rosa sinica. 
This saint was born at Crediton, in Devonshire, 
educated at a Benedictine monastery at Exeter, 
sent to Friesland as a missionary, became Arch- 



dedicated to Saints 7 1 



bishop of Mentz, and was called the Apostle of the 
Germans. 

He was murdered in East Friesland by the 
peasantry, while holding a confirmation, in 755. 
June ii. S. Barnabas, Apostle. Midsummer Daisy. 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. 

He was the first Bishop of Milan; and, after many 
trials and torments, was stoned to death at Salamis, 
in Cyprus. 

The fields at this time are filled with flowers, 
making nature most beautiful. An old poet thus 
writes : 

" Not Iris 4 , in her pride and beautie, 
Adorns her arch with such varietie ; 
Nor dothe the milk-white way, in frostie night, 
Appeare so fair and beautiful in sight, 
As doe these fields and groves, and sweeter bowers, 
Bestrew'd and deckt with partie-color'd floures." 

GEO. PEELE, 1584. 

June 1 7. S. Alban, Proto-martyr of England. Feather 
Grass. Stipa pennata. 

4 The Rainbow. 



72 Flowers and Plants 



This saint, the proto-martyr of England, was 
born at Verulam, which was at that time a Roman 
colony, now called S. Alban's, from him. He 
served seven years as a soldier under Diocletian, 
returned to England, became a Christian, and 
suffered martyrdom in 303, during the dreadful 
persecution raised by that potentate. 

S. Alban is said to have been the first Grand 
Master of the Freemasons in England. 

Amphibalus, a Christian priest, pursued by reason 
of his religion, was found by Alban in a state of 
destitution. Alban was a Pagan, but was naturally 
humane ; and the interesting appearance, the mild 
manners, and exhausted state of the Christian 
excited his compassion. 

He. offered him shelter, and took him to his own 
house. The more he saw of the refugee, the more 
he admired him. He gladly received his instruc- 
tions in the Christian faith, and joined, him in 
prayer and in other religious exercises, and was led 
by degrees to renounce his idolatry. 



dedicated to Saints 73 



Soon after, Amphibalus was traced to his re- 
treat; he made his escape dressed in the clothes 
of his entertainer and pupil. This, however, being 
soon discovered, S. Alban was exposed to the 
fury of the Pagans; and having refused to offer 
sacrifice to the gods, was immediately beheaded. 
The place where he suffered was the hill over- 
looking the spot then occupied by the ancient 
Verulam. 

It was a hill adorned, or rather clothed, with all 
kinds of flowers ; having its sides neither perpen- 
dicular, nor even, nor raggy, but sloping down into 
a most beautiful plain, "worthy, from its lovely 
appearance," says Bede, "to be the scene of a 
martyr's sufferings " : 

' ' Thus was Alban tried, 

England's first martyr, whom no threats could shake. 
Self-offer'd victim ; for his friend he died, 

And for the faith ; nor shall his name forsake 
That hill, whose flowery platform seems to rise, 
By nature deck'd for holiest sacrifice." 

WORDSWORTH. 



74 Flowers and Plants 



June 24. Nativity of S. John the Baptist. S. John's 
Wort : Hypericum pulchrum. Tutsam : Hyperi- 
cum Androscemum. Chrysanthemums, also 
Gooseberries. 

Fuchs, writing in the sixteenth century, says 
that the Germans in his time called Armoise or 
Artemisia, S.John's girdle; and that they made both 
hats and girdles of it, and threw them into the fires, 
which, on S. John's day, were lighted in the prin- 
cipal thoroughfares. 

Scarlet Lychnis has been called Candelabrum 
ingens S. Johannis. The French call it Croix de 
Jerusalem *. 
June 29. S. Peter, Apostle and Martyr. Yellow 

Rattle. Rhinanthus Galli. 
Crucified at Rome, A.D. 65. 
"The yellow floure, called the Yellow Cocks- 
combe, which floureth now in the field*, is a sign of 
S. Peter's day ; whereon it is always in fine floure, 
in order to admonish us of the denial of our Lord 
5 " Floral Calendar, by a Lady." 



dedicated to Saints 75 



by S. Peter; that even he, the Prince of the 
Apostles, did fall through feare, and denyed his 
Lord; so are we, fallible creatures, the more liable 
to a similar tentatioun." Wheale, 



July z. Visitation of the Virgin Mary. White Lily. 
Lilium candidum. 

This festival was instituted by Pope Urban VI. 
in commemoration of the journey which the mother 
of our Lord took to the mountains of Judaea to 
visit the mother of S. John Baptist. 

In almost every case the vase of white lilies 
stands by the side of the Blessed Virgin, with its 
three mystical flowers crowning their three stems, 
said to have been adopted in consequence of the 
miraculous appearance of three lilies, to confirm 
the faith and strengthen the doubts of a certain 
famous master of the Dominicans, at the instance 
of S. Egidius. 



76 Flowers and Plants 



July 15. S. Swithun, Bishop of Winchester. Small 

Cape Marigold. Calendula pluvialis. 
S. Swithun was consecrated Bishop in 852, and 
died in 862. He expressed a wish before dying 
that he might be buried in the cemetery, instead of 
in the Church, as the Bishops always were, that 
" the rain might drop upon his grave ; thinking no 
vault so good as the vault of heaven." According 
to the legend, the monks wished to remove his 
body to a more honourable resting-place, but were 
compelled to relinquish the idea in consequence of 
the heavy rain, which lasted for forty days. This 
was construed into an expression of displeasure on 
the part of the saint; and from this circumstance 
has arisen the popular notion, that -if it rains on 
S. Swithun's day, it will rain -for forty days and 
nights. Many miracles being reported to have been 
done at his grave, a chapel was built over it, and a 
solemn translation made in honour of him, which 
was this day celebrated. 

July 20. S. Margaret, Virgin and Martyr. Vir- 



dedicated to Saints 77 



ginian Dragon's head. Dracocephalus Virgi- 
nianum. 

"And poppies a sanguine mantle spread, 
For the blood of the dragon S. Margaret shed." 

The legend of S. Margaret is probably one of 
the oldest, as it was one of the most popular, of the 
Middle Ages. She was born at Antioch, and was 
the daughter of a heathen priest. Olybrius, presi- 
dent of the East under the Romans, had an inclina- 
tion to marry her ; but, finding she was a Christian, 
he deferred doing so until he could persuade her to 
renounce her religion; but she persisting, he first 
tortured her, and then cut off her head, A.D. 278. 
July 22. St. Mary Magdalen. African Lily. Agapan- 

thus umbellatus. 

July 25. S. James, Apostle. S. James' Cross : Ama- 
ryllis formosissima. S. James' Wort : Senecio 
Jacobcea. 

This saint was called the Great, either because 
he was much older than the other James, or because 



78 Flowers and Plants 



our Lord conferred upon him some particular 
honours and favours, he being one of the three 
disciples whom our Saviour admitted to the more 
intimate transactions of His life. 

He was the first of the Apostles who obtained 
the crown of martyrdom, A.D. 43. 
July 26. S. Anne, Mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Common Chamomile. Matricaria Chamomilla. 

The Chamomile is dedicated to S. Anne, from a 
fanciful derivation of the botanical name Matri- 
caria, from mater and cara. 

S. Joachim and S. Anne, the parents of the 
Virgin, have been honoured in the Church from a 
very early period. 



Lammas Day Anciently called S. Peter's ad Vin- 
cula Day. Stramony. Datura Stramonium. 

"Lammas Day, called August's wheel, 
When the long corn stinks of Chamomile." 



dedicated to Saints 79 



Much learning has been wasted in the endeavour 
to discover the origin of the word " Lammas ; " 
some deriving it from Loaf-mass, a Saxon term for 
the Mass at which was offered a loaf made of the 
new corn. Others find a solution of the term in 
the Gaelic La-ith-mes, pronounced La-ee-mas, the 
day of the obligation of grain', whatever that 
may be ; and many other conjectures might be 
cited, when the most likely derivation was nearer 
than they imagined. The service of the day was 
called S. Peter ad Vincula mass, as we find was 
also the case at other times, such as at Christmas 
and Michaelmas ; it is, therefore, easy to see how 
that the service came to be called Vincula-mass, 
and by an easy transition, LA-MASS. 
Aug. 6. Transfiguration of our Lord. Common 
Meadow Saffron. Colchicum aulumnale. 

The Meadow Saffron is very rarely in flower at 
this time. 

8 "Hone's Every Day Book," vol. i. p. 536. 



8o Flowers and Plants 



This festival was introduced into the Church of 
Rome by Pope Calixtus III. in 1455, but it had 
been observed by the Greek Church a long time 
before, even as early as the sixth century. 

Aug. 7. Name of Jesus. Common Amaranth. 
Amaranthus hypochondriacus. 

Aug. 10. S. Lawrence. Deacon and Martyr. Com- 
mon Balsam. Impatiens Bahama. 
S. Lawrence was a Spaniard by birth ; he was 
treasurer of the Church at Rome, and archdeacon 
to Pope Sixtus II. When the Bishop was killed by 
order of the soldiers of Valerian, S. Lawrence 
refused to give up the Church treasure, which they 
imagined was in his custody, and so they laid him 
upon a gridiron and broiled him to death, A.D. 
258. 

Aug. 15. Assumption B. M. V. Virgin's Bower. 
Clematis Vitalba. 

Aug. 24. S. Bartholomew, Apostle. Sunflower. 
Helianthus annuus. 



dedicated to Saints 81 



' ' Eagle of flowers ! I see thee stand 

And on the sun's noon glory gaze ; 
With eye like his, thy lids expand, 

And fringe their disc with golden rays ; 
Though fix'd in earth, in darkness rooted there, 
Light is thine element, thy dwelling air, 

Thy prospect heaven. 

" So would mine eagle soul descry 

Beyond the path where planets run, 
The light of immortality, 

The splendour of creation's sun ; 

Though sprung from earth, and hastening to the tomb, 
In hope a flower of Paradise to bloom, 

I look to heaven." 

MONTGOMERY. 

S. Bartholomew preached the Gospel in Armenia, 
converted the Lycaonians, and afterwards visited 
the extreme confines of India. He is supposed to 
be the same as Nathaniel, since the Evangelists 
who mention Bartholomew say nothing of Natha- 
niel, and S. John, who mentions Nathaniel, takes 
no notice of Bartholomew. 

Aug. 28. S. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. Golden 
Rod. Solidago mrgaurea. 



82 Flowers and Plants 



He was born at Tagasta, in Numidia, in 354 ; his 
mother Monica being an earnest Christian, and his 
father a Pagan. 

Aug. 29. S. John the Baptist beheaded. S. John's 
Wort. Hyperdum elodes.. 

This feast, according to Durandus, was formerly 
called Fes turn collectionis S. Johannis Baptista, or 
the Feast of the gathering up of S. John's relics, and 
afterwards by corruption Festum decollationis, the 
feast of his beheading 7 . 



Sept. i. S. Giles, Abbot. S. Giles' Orpine. Sedum 

telephium. 

S. Giles, or ^Egidius, was born at Athens, and 
came into France ; having first sold his estates, to 
bestow the proceeds in charitable uses. 

1 Wheatley. 



dedicated to Saints 83 



He is considered the Patron Saint of beggars 
and cripples ; most Churches named in his honour 
being situated at the entrance of towns, where 
beggars were, of old, wont to resort. He died 
A.D. 795. 

Sept. 7. S. Enurchus, Bishop of Orleans. Star Wort, 

Callitriche autumnalis. 

Was also called Evortius; was present at the 
Council of Valentia, which was held A.D. 374. 

Sept. 8. Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Bryony, Our Lady's Seal. Red-berried Bryony. 
Bryonia dioica. 

This festival was ordered to be celebrated about 
the year 60.5, by Pope Sergius. 

Sept. 14. Holy Cross Day. Blue Passion-flower. 
Passiflora carulea. 

"The Passion-flower long has blow'd, 
To betoken us signs of the Holy Rood." 
G 2 



84 Flowers and Plants 



The Passion-flower derives its name from an idea 
that all the instruments of our Lord's passion are 
represented upon it. " Nature herself grieves at the 
Crucifixion, as is denoted by the flower representing 
the five wounds, and the column or pillar of 
scourging, besides the three nails, and the crown of 
thorns," or, as the writer of the " Catholic Florist " 
expresses it : 

" The leaves represent the spear which pierced our 
Saviour's side ; the tendrils, the cords which bound His hands, 
or the stripes with which He was scourged ; the ten petals, 
the ten Apostles who deserted Him ; the pillar in the centre 
of the flower, the Cross ; the stamina, the hammers ; the 
styles, the nails ; the inner circle about the central pillar, the 
crown of thorns ; the radius round it, the nimbus of glory ; 
the white in the flower is an emblem of purity ; the blue, a 
type of heaven. 

" It keeps open three days, and then dies ; denoting the 
death, burial, and resurrection of our Lord." ' 

This fanciful idea has also been applied to other 
flowers and trees. For example, there is a legend 
that the " accursed tree " was made of the wood of 
the aspen tree ; whose leaves, since the Crucifixion, 



dedicated to Saints 85 



have never been still, but are always agitated in 
remembrance of that dreadful day : 

" Far off in highland wilds 'tis said 

(But truth now laughs at fancy's lore), 
That of this tree the Cross was made 
Which erst the Lord of glory bore, 
And of that deed its leaves confess, 
E'er since, a troubled consciousness." 

SPIRIT OF THE WOODS. 

The weeping willow is the tree from which the 
scourges were made with which our Lord was 
chastised, and which tree has " never since been 
able to hold up its head." 

The purple Orchis, also called Gethsemane, is 
supposed to have grown at the foot of the Cross, 
and to have been stained with the blood that 
flowed from our Lord's body. A similar idea is 
connected with the Arum; also with the Spotted 
Persicaria. 

Sept. 17. S. Lambert, Bishop and Martyr. Narrow- 
leaved Mallow. Malva angustifolia. 

S. Lambert was Bishop of Maestricht in the year 



86 Floivers and Plants 



673 ; he was murdered during an insurrection in 
France, in 703. 

Sept. 21. S. Matthew, Apostle, Evangelist, and Martyr. 

Cilcated Passion-flower. Passiflora cilcata. 
S. Matthew, the son of Alphaeus, having preached 
the Gospel in Ethiopia, was martyred there. 

Sept. 26. S. Cyprian, Archbishop of Carthage, and 

Martyr. Star Wort. Aster Tripolium. 
S. Cyprian was beheaded outside the city of 
Carthage, by order of Valerian, A.D. 258. 

Sept. 29. St Michael and all Angels. Michaelmas 

Daisy. Aster Tradescanti. 

Wheatley says that the Feast of S. Michael and 
ail Angels is observed, that men may know what 
benefits are derived from the ministry of Angels. 

Sept. 30. S. Jerome. Golden Amaryllis. Amaryllis 
aurea. 



dedicated to Saints 87 



ctofccr. 

Oct. i. S. Remigius. Lowly Amaryllis, or S. 

Remy's Lily. Amaryllis humilis. 
He was Bishop of Rheims, and instructor of 
Clovis, the first king of the Franks who professed 
Christianity. He died A.D. 535. 
Oct. 6. S. Faith, Virgin and Martyr. Late-flowering 

Feverfew. Pyrethmm Scrotinum. 
S. Faith was beheaded A.D. 920. 
Oct. 9. S. Denys, Areopagite. Bishop and Martyr. 

Milky Agaric. Agaricus lactiflorus. 
He is said to have been the first to preach the 
Gospel in France. Tradition affirms that he was 
beheaded at Montmartre, and miraculously took 
up his head after it was severed from his body, and 
walked with it two miles ; after which he lay down 
and expired, A.D. 272. 

"He fell indeed, but presently 

arose. 
The breathless body finds both 

feet and way, 



88 Flowers and Plants 



He takes his head in hand and 

forward goes, 

Till the directing angels bid 

him stay, 

Well may the Church triumphantly 
proclaim 

This martyr's death, and never- 
dying fame." 

Oct. 17. S. Etheldreda, Virgin. Ten-leaved Sun- 
flower. Helianthus decapetalus. 
She was one of the most celebrated of English 
virgin saints ; and was and is popular with the 
peasantry, under the name of S. Audrey. 
Oct. 1 8. S. Luke, Evangelist. Floccose Agaric. 

Agaricus floccosus. 

It is presumed that he died about the year 70, in 
the eighty-fourth year of his age ; having written his 
Gospel seven or eight years before. 
Oct. 25. S. Crispin, Martyr. Flea-bane Star Wort. 

Aster conizoides. 

Crispinus and Crispianus were brothers, who were 
born at Rome, whence they travelled to Soissons in 
France, to propagate the faith. They supported 



dedicated to Saints 89 



themselves by shoemaking ; and, it having been 
discovered that they were Christians, they were 
beheaded about the year 308. There is a tradition 
current in Romney Marsh, that the relics of these 
saints were cast into the sea, and washed ashore 
upon that part of the Kentish coast. Certain it is 
that " Crispin and Crispianus " is a very favourite 
public-house sign in Kent. 

Oct. 28. SS. Simon and Jude, Apostles. S. Simon : 
Late Chrysanthemum ; Chrysanthemum scro- 
tinum. S. Jude : Scattered Star Wort ; Aster 
passiflorus. 

S. Simon is supposed to have suffered martyrdom 
in England, by being sawn asunder; and S. Jude 
was slain with the sword in Persia. 



Jlobtmbtr. 

Nov. i. All Saints' Day. Sweet Bay : Laurus nobilis. 

Dark red Sunflower : Helianthus atro rubens. 
Nov. 6. S. Leonard, Confessor. Yew. Taxus baccata. 



9 



Flowers and Plants 



He was born at Le Naus, in France, and died 
Bishop of Rheims, A.D. 500. 
Nov. ii. S. Martin, Bishop and Confessor. Wey- 

mouth Pine. Pinus strobus. 
He was born in Hungary, in 316, and was re- 
markable from his infancy for his great meekness. 
While at Amiens, in 332, it is recorded of him 
that he met, just outside the gates of the city, a 
poor man, without clothes, and it was mid- winter; 
he immediately took his sword, and, dividing his 
military cloak, gave half to the poor man. He 
became a Christian, and Bishop of Tours. He 
died about A.D. 396, at the age of eighty. 
Nov. 13. S. Britius or Brice, Bishop. Bay. Laurus 

poeticus. 

He was successor to S. Martin in the Bishopric 
of Tours, and died about the year 432. 

The Bay is also dedicated to S. Homobonus 
(S. Goodman), Patron Saint of Cremona. 
Nov. 15. S. Machutus, Bishop. Sweet Coltsfoot. 
Tussilago fragrans. 



dedicated to Saints 91 



He is also called S, Malo. He became a Chris- 
tian in Brittany, and was Bishop of Aleth. He 
died A.D. 565. 
Nov. 17. S. Hugh, Bishop. Tree Stramony. Datura 

arborea. 

He was born in Burgundy, and was Bishop of 
Lincoln in 1 1 86. 
Nov. 20. S. Edmund, King and Martyr. Red Sta- 

pelia. Stapelia rufa. 

S. Edmund was King of East Anglia. He fell 
into the hands of the Danes, a miserable victim 
to their barbarity; for they tied him to a tree 
as a butt or mark, and so shot him to death 
with their arrows. 

"Tho' now no place was left for wounds, 

Yet arrows did not fail ; 
These furious wretches still let fly, 

Thicker than winter's hail." LELAND. 

Nov. 22. S. Cecilia, Virgin and Martyr. Trumpet- 
flowered Wood Sorrel. Orchis tubiflora. 

" Divine Cecilia came, 

Inventress of the vocal frame." 



93 Flowers and Plants 



She is the Patron Saint of music and musicians. 
She was martyred with her brother, A.D. 230. 
Nov. 23. S. Clement, First Bishop of Rome, and 
Martyr. Convex Wood Sorrel. Oxalis con- 
vexula. 

He is generally supposed to be the fellow- 
labourer of S. Paul (Phil. iv. 3). He was, on 
account of his religion, first condemned to hew 
stones ; and was afterwards cast into the sea, with 
an anchor about his neck. 
Nov. 25. S. Catherine, Virgin and Martyr. Sweet 

Butter Bur. Petasites vulgaris. 
She was born in Alexandria, and was well versed 
in letters. About the year 305 she was converted 
to Christianity, which she afterwards professed with 
great courage and constancy, openly rebuking the 
heathen for offering sacrifice to the gods, and 
upbraiding the cruelty of the Emperor Maximianus 
to his face. She was tortured in a very unusual 
manner namely, by having a machine with four 
wheels, stuck round with iron spikes, or the points 



dedicated to Saints 93 



of swords, rolled over her body ; and was then 
beheaded. 

Nov. 30. S. Andrew, Apostle and Martyr. S. 
Andrew's Cross, or Common Ascyrum. As- 
cyrus vulgaris, 
He was martyred A.D. 70. 

19 camber. 

Dec. 6. S. Nicholas, Bishop. Nest-flowered Heath. 

Erica nidiflora. 

This is the Patron Saint of virgins, boys, sailors, 
and the Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks 
of the City of London. After living in seclusion 
in a monastery for many years, he was chosen 
Bishop of Myra, in which high calling he became 
noted for his fervency and zeal, his humility and 
active benevolence. 
Dec. 8. Conception of the Virgin Mary. Arbor 

Vitse. Thuja occidentalis. 

This feast was constituted by S. Anselm, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, about the year 1070. 



94 



Flowers and Plants 



Dec. 13. S. Lucy, Virgin and Martyr. Cypress Arbor 

Vitae. Thuja cupressoides. 

S. Lucy was a young lady of Syracuse, who, 
preferring a religious single life to marriage, gave 
away all her possessions to the poor. Having been 
accused to Peschasius, a heathen judge, of pro- 
fessing Christianity, she was wantonly and bar- 
barously murdered by his order. 
Dec. 21. S. Thomas, the Apostle. Sparrow Wort. 

Erica passerina. 

S. Thomas is affirmed to have travelled and 
promulgated Christianity among the Parthians, 
Medes, and Persians; to have been the Apostle 
of the Indies. He was martyred at Melapore, 
on the Coromandel coast. His preaching raised 
the indignation of the Brahmins, who instigated 
the people against him till they threw stones and 
darts at him, and ended his life by running him 
through with a lance. 

Dec. 25. The Nativity of Christ, or Christmas Day. 
Holly. Ilex bacciflora. 



dedicated to Saints 95 



" Christmas, the joyous period of the year. 
Now with bright Holly all the temples strow, 
And with Lawrell green, and sacred mistleto." 

GAY. 



Gay is wrong in saying that Churches are decked 
with mistletoe, as it never is allowed to enter the 
Church, except by mistake. 

This festival of Christmas is the greatest feast 
of all the year, being the celebration of the birth 
of our "Blessed Lord, " born, as at this time, of 
a pure Virgin." It fills our hearts with gladness, 
at the remembrance of the "tidings of comfort 
and joy" brought to us through the lowly shep- 
herds of Bethlehem. 

Dec. 2,6. S. Stephen, the Proto-Martyr. Purple 

Heath. Erica purpurea. 

The particulars of S. Stephen's death are de- 
scribed in the seventh chapter of the Acts of 
the Holy Apostles. Few can read unmoved that 
simple and touching story of the cruel usage he 
was subjected to; of his calling upon God to forgive 



96 Flowers and Plants 



his murderers ; and after having shown patience to 
the last, "he fell asleep." 

Dec. 27. S. John, Apostle and Evangelist. Flame 
Heath. Erica Flamma. 

" Mountain blossoms, shining blossoms, 

Ye do teach us to be glad, 

When no summer can be had 

Blooming in our inward bosoms. 

Ye whom God preserveth still, 

Set as lights upon a hill ; 
Token to the wintry earth, that beauty liveth still." 

E. B. BROWNING. 

Dec. 28. Holy Innocent's Day, or Childermas Day. 
Bloody Heath. Erica cruenta. 

Dec. 31. S. Sylvester, Bishop of Rome. Genista 

Heath. Erica genistopha. 

He is said to have been the author of several 
rites and ceremonies in the Church. He died 
A.D. 384. 



dedicated to Saints 97 



" MOVEABLE FEASTS. 

PASSION SUNDAY. Christ's Thorn. Paliurus acu- 
leatus. 

PALM SUNDAY. Common Palma Christi. Ritinus 
comnmnis. 

HOLY THURSDAY. Laurel-leaved Passion-flower. 
Passiflora rubra. 

GOOD FRIDAY. Long-sheathed Anemone. Ane- 
mone pulsatilla. Also called Pasque-flower. 

Many conjectures have been made as to the par- 
ticular tree whose wood furnished the material for 
the Cross upon which our Blessed Lord was nailed, 
some naming Poplar (Populus tremulus), see page 84. 
The tradition that most commonly prevailed was that 
which Durantes gives in the following words : 

" Pes Cedrum est, truncus Cupressus, 
Oliva supremum, palmaque transversum, 
Christi sunt in cruce lignum." 



Flowers and Plants 



Which have been rendered by Evelyn in his 
" Sylva " : 

"Nailed were His feet to Cedar, to palm His hands, 
Cypress His body bore, Title on Olive stands." 

The plant generally chosen by the early painters, 
to represent the reed which was placed in our 
Saviour's hand, is the Reed mace : Typha latifolia. 

EASTER EVE. Spear-leaved Violet. Viola Lactea. 

EASTER SUNDAY. White Lily. Lilium candidum. 
Also dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 

ROGATION SUNDAY. Rogation Flower. Polygala 
vulgaris. Common Milk Wort. 

ASCENSION DAY. Lilies of the Valley. Convallaria 
majalis. 

Anciently called Ladders to Heaven, from their 
being an emblem of Humility, without which we 
cannot hope to ascend to heaven. 

WHIT SUNDAY. Columbine. Aquilegia vulgaris. 
White Thorn. Prunus spinosa. 



dedicated to Saints 99 



TRINITY SUNDAY. Herb Trinity. Viola tricolor. 
Also called Pansy. Violet Heartsease. 
Common White Trefoil. Trifolium repens. 

" O all ye green things upon the earth, bless ye the Lord : 
praise Him, and magnify Him for ever." 



<arl Caltntfar of 



" The Snowdrop, in purest white arraie, 
First rears her hedde on Candlemas daie ; 
While the Crocus hastens to the shrine 
Of Primrose love on S. Valentine. 
Then comes the Daffodil, beside 
Our Ladye's Smock at our Ladye-tide. 
Aboute S. George, when blue is worn, 
The blue Harebells the fields adorn ; 
Against the day of Holie Cross, 
The Crowfoot gilds the flowerie grasse. 
When S. Barnabie bright 8 smiles night and daie, 
Poor Ragged Robin blooms in the hay. 



" Bamabe bright, 
The longest day and shortest night." 

OLD RHYME. 
H 2 



ioo Flowers and Plants dedicated to Saints 



The Scarlet Lychnis, the garden's pride, 

Flames at S. John the Baptist's tide. 

From Visitation to S. Swithin's showers, 

The Lilie White reigns Queen of the flores ; 

And Poppies, a sanguine mantle spread 

For the Blood of the Dragon S. Margaret shed. 

Then under the wanton Rose, agen, 

That blushes for Penitent Magdalen. 

Till Lammass daie, called August's Wheel, 

When the long Corn stinks of Camomile. 

When Mary left us here belowe, 

The Virgin's Bower is full in blow ; 

And yet, anon, the full Sunflowre blew, 

And became a starre for Bartholomew, 

The Passion-floure long has blowed, 

To betoken us signs of the Holy Roode. 

The Michaelmas Daisie, among dede weeds, 

Blooms for S. Michael's valourous deeds ; 

And seems the last of floures that stode, 

Till the feste of S. Simon and S. Jude 

Save Mushrooms, and the Fungus race 

That grow till All-hallow-tide takes place. 

Soon the evergreen Laurel alone is greene, 

When Catherine crownes all learned menne. 

The Ivie and Holly Berries are seen, 

And Yule Log and Wassaile come round agen." 



GENERAL HINTS 

" The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the 
pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of My 
sanctuary." ISA. Ix. 14. 

A S all Churches are not alike in form and style, the 
remarks, instructions, and designs here given can for 
the most part have but a general character. It needs, 
however, very little exercise of thought and judgment 
to be able to adapt the designs, apply the remarks, 
and benefit by the instructions, so that they may be 
used for almost any style of building. The knowledge 
of architecture is so much more general now than it 
has been in times past, and the principles of taste so 
much better understood, and the desire to do things 
according to correct principles is now so prevalent, 



IO2 Flowers and Festivals 



that absurdities in style of decoration or ornament, 
either floral or otherwise, are very rarely met with in 
the present day ; not that they do not exist still, but 
that they are less obtrusive. 

The chief object in decorating a Church should be 
to impress upon the senses of the congregation the 
teaching of the Church at that particular season for 
which the building is decorated. This is best done by 
a judicious choice of those symbols which are most 
appropriate for that purpose, and a display of texts of 
Scripture, which may be selected from the Epistles or 
Gospels for the day, in various parts of the Church so 
that the wandering eye, following the wandering mind, 
may meet on all sides those symbols and holy words, 
which may serve to fix the attention, and recall the 
wandering thought. 

In commencing the work, the following hints may 
be useful : 

i st. Obtain the consent of the Churchwardens to 

decorate the Church \ 
1 As the law stands, the Churchwardens only have power to 



General Hints 103 



2nd. Have a plan drawn out of the intended 
decorations, and work to that plan this will 
save much time, labour, and confusion. 

3rd. Choose a large room near the Church to work 
in, in preference to the Church itself. 

4th. Let the work be divided into portions, accord- 
ing to ability, and let each individual do the 
utmost to work out the portion assigned in 
the best manner possible. 

5th. The materials should be sorted and arranged 
beforehand. 

6th. All that have to use scissors should have them 
fastened by a string to the waist. 

7th. Do not attempt too much. 

8th. Remember the purpose for which the work is 
intended. . 

allow floral or other decorations to be put up in the Church. 
Attention to which fact, in this and other matters, will avoid 
much trouble and heart-burning. 



104 Flowers and Festivals 



MATERIALS. 

HOLLY. All kinds of Holly are equally useful in 
Floral decorations; the berries should be taken off 
each sprig, in making wreaths, and replaced where 
they are likely to be most effective. 

IVY. Useful for wreaths, and also to make a good 
relief to the sombre Yew or Arbor Vitae. The Irish Ivy 
is a very useful sort ; also the kind which grows upon 
old walls and hedge banks, which has small indented 
leaves of a dark green colour, with the veins strongly 
marked with a lighter shade. 

LAUREL Is very good for wreaths; or the single 
leaves, placed round a text border, form a neat, 
effective edging. 

FIR, LAURUSTINUS, YEW, ARBOR VIT.E, Box, &c. 



General Hin ts 1 05 



WREATHS AND GARLANDS. 

These, among the most effective and graceful of 
decorations, have very frequently much time and labour 
spent upon their construction, to very little purpose. 
It will be as well, therefore, to describe the method 
which, in the course of long experience, has been 
proved to be the best; and which is equally well 
adapted for large garlands, for hanging round the 
pillars, as well as for the close, thick wreaths, to be 
used for other purposes. This description will be made 
in as general terms as possible. Special directions will 
be given for the construction of the designs which 
illustrate this work and which special directions may, 
with little effort of mind, or exercise of small ingenuity, 
be adapted to meet the requirements of any Church, 
to which they are not exactly fitted as they are now 
shown in the plates. 

A good supply of strong twine or cord should be the 
first thing provided, the strength of which is determined 
by the size and consequent weight of the garland. 



106 Flowers and Festivals 



Procure also some of the common iron wire, which 
is sold in coils of different degrees of fineness, at 
about threepence or fourpence a pound. It should be 
of a size that may be readily cut with a large pair of 
common scissors, but strong enough to secure the 
boughs to the cord by merely bending it round them 
once or twice, and fastened by the ends being twisted 
together. 

Take care not to begin the work upon too long a length 
of cord about six to eight feet will be found sufficient ; 
and, if long wreaths are required, these lengths may be 
joined as desired. One end of the rope or stout cord 
upon which the wreath is to be constructed should 
be tied to some firm support ; small sprays or branches 
should then be fastened on to the cord at intervals 
of about two feet, by knotting the cord round each 
spray or branch ; by this means, the remainder of the 
smaller sprays or branches, which are to be fastened 
on the cord with wire, will be kept from slipping out 
of their places. 

There is another method sometimes used, of fasten- 



General Hints 107 



ing the branches on to the " supporting cord," as it 
is called ; which method is to wind fine twine round 
the stalks of the branches ; but this is not so good a 
plan as the first-mentioned, for the reason that when 
the wreath is carried about from the place where it 
was made to its intended resting-place, the twine is 
apt to slip, and disarrange the branches so much so, 
as sometimes to render it utterly useless, and so make 
all the trouble employed in forming it of no account. 
If this latter plan be preferred, the chance of the 
sprays slipping may be lessened by looping and tying 
the twine at intervals, more especially over the larger 
and heavier sprays. 

If the first-mentioned method be chosen, and wire 
used for fastening, it should be cut in pieces of about 
four inches in length, which may be readily wound 
once or twice round the rope or cord, together with 
the stem of the spray ; the ends of the wire being 
twisted together, they remain firm. 

The wreaths should be begun with the heavier 
kinds of evergreens, such as Laurel, Arbutus, Laurus- 



1 08 Flowers and Festivals 



tinus, and such like ; and afterwards filled in with the 
lighter, closer kinds such as Yew, Fir, Box, Privet, 
Holly, &c., until it is of the required thickness. 

The evergreens should be separated, in various 
lengths, at the commencement of the work; choose 
good bold sprays, as many an ugly wreath is the con- 
sequence of a bad selection; experience teaches us 
that it is almost impossible to form a graceful wreath 
from small sprays ; a decent length of stem should be 
chosen, that a firmness may be obtained, but thick 
and bare stems should be avoided, as they add greatly 
to the weight, and make the garland stiff and un- 
wieldy. Endeavour to place the leaves alternately; 
and imitate, as nearly as possible, the way in which 
the leaves would fall naturally. 

In making the garland, it would be as well to 
employ some one or more little hands to supply the 
material. This plan saves time and trouble, and 
ensures a certain amount of evenness in the work. 

By way of finish, small sprigs of variegated shrubs, 
bunches of berries, &c., may be added. The berries 



General Hints 109 



should be placed at intervals, and against the darker- 
coloured leaves, for effect. 

Each wreath should be made by a separate hand, 
for when two persons work at the same wreath, the 
effect is frequently spoiled by the two ends not 
matching, or it is otherwise wanting in uniformity. 

When one length of cord is covered, it should be 
laid carefully aside, and another taken in its place, 
until there is sufficient for the space they are in- 
tended to occupy in the Church. They may be joined 
by tying the ends together, and any little additions 
made and spaces filled up, if required, when they are 
hung up in their proper places. 

Wreaths are most commonly made in the manner 
just described ; but many think it better to make a 
foundation of three or four strands of twine, rather than 
rope. In this case, the twine should be knotted 
together at intervals of about four inches ; allowance 
being made in measuring the twine for what will be 
taken up in knotting. Laurel or Holly may be fixed 
by inserting the upper leaves of each spray in one of 



no Flowers and Festivals 



the meshes ; and the end of the stalk, with a leaf or 
two, in the mesh to which it reaches. 

It will be best, as before described, to make fast 
one end of the knotted twine to some firm holding at 
a convenient height from the ground. 

In making festoons for capitals of pillars, a little 
more care is necessary ; and a little taste should be 
exercised to make the wreaths assimilate as near as 
possible to the carving of foliage. 

When the wreaths are finished, and before they are 
hung up, they should be kept in some cool place; and, 
if necessary, sprinkled with a little water, but not with 
too much. 

HOLLY BERRIES. If these be scarce, a good sub- 
stitute may be found in Rose hips, which may have 
a small piece of wire passed through them as a stalk, 
and several twisted together; or the fallen Holly 
berries strung on wire and made into rings, and 
slipped over the leaves, are very effective. 

Pearl Honeysuckle berries, in bunches, on dark 



General Hints 1 1 1 



leaves, and the Gladiolus fatidus, which bears a cap- 
sule of berries of a brilliant orange colour, may also 
be useful. 

Some objection may be felt as to the use of arti- 
ficially-contrived berries; therefore it will be better, 
in case of a scarcity, to use some of the smaller sorts 
of everlasting flowers; these answer the purpose of 
breaking the monotony of a single colour; and are, 
moreover, realities, and not shams. 

DEVICES. Where definite shapes are required, there 
are several methods of accomplishing the desired 
effect. Some use a ground-work of tin or perforated 
zinc; but both these materials are open to objections, 
as will be hereafter shown. 

Crosses, Crowns, or Monograms will be found in the 
designs given in the body of this work; which may be 
used as they stand, or taken and used independently. 

If outline forms are employed, to be covered with 
leaves or flowers, according to taste and fancy, these 
same forms will be best, coloured black. 



i j 2 Flowers and Festivals 



The method of arranging the leaves and flowers 
will depend, in a great measure, upon individual taste; 
and will, of course, be as variable. 

If a device should be placed against a window, or 
where the light shines through it ; be careful to make 
a dark solid background to it, excluding every ray of 
light that will serve to render the design confused. 
It is best, in this case, to have a frame-work similar to 
those already spoken of. 

If it is required to use masses of berries, in such a 
manner that it would be inconvenient or difficult to 
fasten together by any other means, paint the places 
required to be thus filled in with a stiff coat of glue, 
very hot, and drop the berries upon it ; when the glue 
is dry, they will be found to adhere, very strongly. 



General Hin ts 113 



FLOWERS FOR THE COMMUNION TABLE. 

There is a very simple plan of forming Crosses or 
any other suitable device for vases, by having a flat 
wire frame made, in shape like a battledore, or rather 
a racket-bat, with meshes of wire. The stalks of any 
flower of a light colour may be placed in the meshes 
of the frame in any required form, and the remaining 
parts filled in with dark leaves or flowers, making the 
desired figure stand out in relief, as it were. A vase 
is filled with wet sand, and the stalk of the frame 
inserted. 

As soon as any one of the flowers shows signs of 
flagging, it can be taken out and replaced by a fresh 
bloom, without injuring the general form of the 
design. 

When it is desired, and the form will admit of it, a 
semi-globular wire frame may be made to cover the 
Font ; and flowers may be so arranged as to present 
the appearance of being piled in banks. 

It is as well to gather flowers for use in decoration at 



j 14 Flowers and Festivals 



least a day before they are used in designs; and, when 
in their places, if they require water, they are best 
watered with a water-pot with a very fine rose. 

The style and amount of decoration to be used 
must depend, in a great measure, upon the character 
of the interior of the building. 

When there are blank spaces, they might be filled 
in with simple ornaments, judiciously introduced. 

In those Churches where neither the Reredos nor 
the Altar Screen admit of the possibility of safely fixing 
any decoration, it is as well to have a frame made of 
the proper length, and in height extending from the 
ground to the sill of the window above. This should 
be covered with canvas ; and over that may be spread 
red cloth or velvet, to show the decorations to advan- 
tage ; the lighter the colour of the red, the better the 
green of the leaves stands out. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE DESIGNS. 

"If -we -would open and intend our eye, 
We all, like Moses, should espy 
Erin in a bush the radiant Deity ; 
But we despise these His inferior ways, 
Though no less full of miracles and praise" 

COWPER. 

T) EFORE proceeding to describe the Plates, it will 
perhaps be well to offer a few general remarks on the 
materials of which they are formed. The foundation of 
a design, i. e., its general outline, upon which the 
variety of colour or material must be placed, is the 
first thing to be thought of. 

This may either be wood, perforated zinc, or a 
material technically called in the paper trade "brown 

I 2 



1 1 6 Flowers and Festivals 



roofing or boarding," a sort of coarse millboard which 
combines great strength, flexibility, and toughness, with 
sufficient softness of texture to admit of a strong 
needle and thread being easily passed through it. 
The cost of this material is fourpence a sheet, and the 
size of the sheet about three feet by five. If this can 
be procured, it is almost invariably preferable to 
perforated zinc, which is much more expensive, more 
apt to break, and a great deal more trouble to work 
upon ; since it catches the thread continually, and fre- 
quently breaks it. 

Another necessary material for foundation work, is 
waterproof paper to save either a dry device from a 
damp wall, or a dry wall from a damp device. This is 
sold by paper-hangers at a trifle a yard ; and consists of 
two sheets of whitey-brown lining paper with a coating 
of india-rubber or gutta-percha between them. 

Cartooning Paper. The best is slightly tinted, and 
may be obtained of any Artists' Colourman, at about a 
shilling a yard, and is about forty-five inches in 
width. 



Description of the Designs 117 

LETTERS OR PORTIONS OF DESIGNS MAY BE 
DONE : 

i st To imitate the richest Gold Embroidery by cover- 
ing the required card-board shape with coarse Dun- 
stable straw, sold for the making of womens' bonnets. 
This should be sewn on all round the outside edge 
first, so as to ensure a correct outline; and then the 
remainder filled in by degrees, so that the last central 
row is as much raised as possible. 

2nd. In Rice. The effect of this is that of carved 
ivory. The required shape, cut out in white cartooning 
paper, should be firmly tacked down to its intended 
foundation, and then covered with a coating of thick 
warm paste ; into which the rice grains must be 
dropped, and arranged so as to lie closely and 
regularly together, and the whole left until it is per- 
fectly stiff and dry. The same directions apply to 
letters or designs done in Red Berries, being quite as 
effectual as the. method already described on page 112; 
or in the smaller Immortelle blossoms. But of the 



1 1 8 Flowers and Festivals 



two processes, the glue will be found to be the 
better. 

3rd. Cork Letters or Devices are cut out in cork, and 
fastened by strong pins on to the foundation ; these 
have an excellent effect. In fact, devices so done can 
hardly be distinguished from old wood carving. Sheets 
of cork, from a quarter to half an inch wide, may be 
procured at any Cork-cutter's. 

4th. Leather Work. The effect of these is that of 
modern wood carving. Borders of leather leaves, 
moulded by machinery, and sold by the dozen, are very 
effective, especially against scarlet, for Borders. 

5th. Honesty Work. The seed-pod of this old- 
fashioned biennial consists of three leaves two outer 
ones, acting as valves, and which are dull and dirty- 
looking, and useless for decorating purposes and a 
central one, the receptacle ; which, when the seed has 
been carefully removed from each side of it, leaves a 
clear, transparent and silvery-looking oval, about the 
size of a shilling. Scarlet or blue velvet or other 



Description of the Designs 119 

material may be beautifully embroidered with it ; 
the effect being that of silver or mother-of-pearl. 

6th. White Cotton Wool. This material is chiefly 
useful in a dark Church, or when the effect of it has to 
be seen from a distance. Cut out the letter or device 
in thick white paper, and paste over it an even piece of 
clean white cotton wool. When this is quite stiff and 
dry, cut out the wool to the shape of the card-board, 
taking care to make the angles sharp, and the edges 
even and straight. 

Strung Holly. Thread a packing-needle with the 
required length of twine, and string the largest and 
finest Holly leaves upon it, taking care to pass the 
needle through the exact centre of each leaf, 

Harvest Wreaths. Plait the three different kinds 
of corn wheat, barley, and oats into separate little 
bunches, of about a dozen heads in each bunch ; and 
cut off the straw, so as to leave it about a foot long. 
The wreath of evergreens, &c., should be wound with 



1 2O Flowers and Festivals 



fine wire, upon a strong string, the required length of 
the wreath (see page 105), and the little bunches of 
corn woven in at regular intervals, and in proper 
rotation oats, wheat, and barley ; so that, when the 
wreath is fixed up, the corn hangs out, a fringe along 
the bottom. Into the top of this wreath, the flowers 
should be studded as thickly as possible on the 
morning of the Festival. 

Harvest Sheaf. Arrange ear by ear, and tie up, 
separated just below the ears, three large handsful of 
wheat ; after which oats, and also barley, in the same 
manner. Then tie three bunches of wheat together, 
about a foot below the ears, and so that the middle 
bunch is a little higher than the two side ones ; 
treat the barley in the same way taking care, however, 
to make the bunches rise one above another like 
steps, in regular gradation. Having done the oats in 
the same manner tie, or what is better, buckle with a 
stout leather strap, all the bunches together, placing 
the wheat in the centre, with the oats on one side of 



Description of the Designs 1 2 1 



it, and the barley on the other ; the highest bunch of 
each of these last next the wheat. Now cut the 
strings which secure all the little separate bunches, 
trim off the straw at the bottom evenly with a pair of 
garden shears, and dress out the top of the sheaf, until 
the wheat stands boldly out from the centre ; while 
the oats and barley droop gracefully from each side, 
until they almost meet each other in the middle, 
underneath the strap, and so complete a circle. On 
the strap, in the centre of the sheaf, should be placed 
a bunth of purple Grapes. 

In describing the Designs when blue, red, white, 
or crimson are here spoken of, velvet, cloth, baize, or 
moreen, are the materials alluded to. 



PLATE I. FRONTISPIECE. This design is suitable 
equally for Easter, Harvest, or Christmas tides. 

In the Plate, it is drawn for Harvest. The Shield is 
illuminated on tinted cartooning paper, which is again 



122 Flowers and Festivals 



sewn firmly round a shape cut out in " roofing " (see 
page 1 1 6). 

The Border, consisting of greenery, bunches of 
corn wheat, barley, and oats in regular succession 
Asparagus tops, Heather, or any other available mate- 
rial, must then be sewn on, and the flowers added on 
the morning of the Festival. 

The heap of Fruit at the bottom is piled on, and 
made to hang from and over a small invisible wooden 
bracket ; the branches of Fir are tied to one another, 
and fastened at the ends to the wall. 

The Crown is also to be cut out in roofing, or per- 
forated zinc *, thickly covered with moss or greenery, 
and jewelled with flowers which should be added 
the last thing, just before the service, on the day of 
the Festival. 

The band of moss round the bottom of the figure 



2 These Crowns, and many of the conventional forms, may be 
obtained ready cut out, in various materials, at a moderate cost, 
of Messrs. Cox and Sons, Southampton Street, Strand ; or of 
Mr. Beal, S. Paul's Churchyard. 



Description of the Designs 1 23 

should be especially thick ; so as almost to smother 
the crimson Dahlias with which it is studded. 

For Easter, the foundation of the Shield may be 
blue instead of scarlet, with the letters of white 
double Daisies, or of the pretty little flower known as 
" Bachelor's Buttons," or the separate blossoms of the 
lesser Celandine. 

The same variations would apply to the Crown. 

For Christmas, the Shield may be covered with 
either scarlet or crimson, with the Text in Rice or 
Honesty Work, described on page 118, and the 
Crown jewelled with Immortelles. 

PLATE II. A Chancel Arch, with a text running 
round it, which may be illuminated either in oil 
colours on zinc, or in water colours on cartooning 
paper ; in the latter case, the paper is to be mounted 
on roofing. Or, the roofing foundation may be 
covered with crimson or blue, and the letters, in any 
sort of colour or material, placed separately upon it. 

The same varieties of material apply to the Cross ; 



1 24 Flowers and Festivals 



which, however, would look excellently well if made 
of wood an inch thick, and then richly gilt upon the 
edges. 

The green Lattice-work on each side of the Arch 
may be applied to the Dado 3 of the Chancel, if there 
be one ; or to any available blank wall-space that has 
straight lines for its boundaries. 

The leaves must be sewn separately on strips of 
strong brown paper, about an inch wide ; and nailed 
to the top and bottom of the crossings. The designs 
on each side of the Cross may be covered in endless 
variety, according to individual taste or available 
local material. 

PLATE III. The flowers in this decoration being 
only as beautiful and graceful as they are liable 
quickly to fade, must be placed in the small invisible 

3 ' ' DADO, the solid block or cube forming the body of a 
pedestal in Classical Architecture, between the base, mouldings, 
and the cornice ; also, an architectural arrangement of mouldings, 
&c., round the lower part of the walls of a building, resembling 
a continuous pedestal." Parker's " Glossary.' 1 '' 



Description of the Designs 1 25 



tubes that are sold for the purpose. It is to hide 
these tubes that the Convolvulus sprays are made to 
spring from bunches of corn, which do not require 
water ; and may, therefore, be placed outside the 
tubes. 

In some Fonts there is room between the pillars, or 
round the main column, for plants trained tall and 
narrow, to be placed round the base, in the pots in 
which they are growing. The pots can always be sunk 
in moss ; and, if they stand very close together, by 
placing one letter on each, a short text or single word, 
as " Hosanna," or " Alleluia," may be carried round. 

In the Drawing, the decoration used is Fern leaves, 
Male Fern, or Osmunda regalis, and Gladiolus; Tri- 
tonias may also be similarly used, with very beautiful 
effect. 

For the top, the moss may be banked up, either on 
or without a foundation, according to the quantity of 
material, the size of the Font, or the required height of 
the design ; and into this moss, the flowers Scarlet 
Geraniums, Rose-coloured Zonellas, White Camellias, 



1 26 Flowers and Festivals 



Lilies, Fern leaves, &c., must be pushed on the 
morning of the Festival. 

The Cross, though necessarily drawn in colour, 
would look much better in the real decoration, if 
done in white. 

The foot of the Cross must be made to reach to the 
bottom of the basin ; and be firmly fixed, by crossed 
supports, to the top of the Font, before the moss-work 
is begun with. 

It is, perhaps, too generally known to mention with- 
out apology, the very beautiful idea of a Cross of 
White Lilies, or other flowers, placed so as to float 
on the top of the water. If this were done in 
the Font that has been selected as an example, 
a text in similar flowers might be studded into a 
band of moss, running round the edge of the 
basin. 

If the Font be of white stone, the Monogram 
should be red or blue, according to the furniture of 
the Church. An edging of gold braid would give 
a brilliant finish, if desired. 



Description of the Designs 127 



PLATE IV. The four figures in this Plate are in- 
tended as Designs for the Panels of Fonts. 

Fi%. i If used in Summer, may be worked out 
as drawn, with Fern leaves springing from a mound 
of damp moss in the centre, into which flowers, 
according to taste or available material, may be 
studded early on the Festival day. If used in Winter, 
the Star may be formed, each point of three sprays 
of Ivy or Fir ; and the centre, of large Ivy leaves, 
sewn on separately in rings, round and round, begin- 
ning at the outside; and making the leaves overlap 
each other, until the centre ones stand straight up- 
right, so that the general effect is that of a large 
green Chrysanthemum or Ranunculus blossom. 

Fig. 2 Must be first cut out in perforated zinc 
or roofing. The Monogram in the centre of it looks 
very beautiful, if studded in with the separate blos- 
soms of the Stephanotis. 

Figs. 3 and 4 Are more especially Winter designs ; 
the yellow parts being intended for the largest bios- 



128 Flowers and Festivals 



soms of the Immortelles; the white for Rice work, 
Cotton wool, or (in Fig. 4) letters of plaited Straw, 
as described on page 117. 

PLATE V. The only foundation required for the 
Border drawn round this window a Border which, 
by the way, may be used with good effect in many 
other parts of a Church, is a small nail or hook, driven 
into the wall, at each of the points where the three 
flowers (Dahlias) are placed. 

The festooned rope is merely made of Holly leaves 
strung on wire, by which means the festoons form 
themselves. 

The flowers can easily be first tied together, or sewn 
on a small strong brown paper centre, and then 
fastened on to the nail or hook. The Crosses at the 
lower corners, and the Monogram at the top, must 
of course be made and put up separately. The 
foundation of them is perforated zinc or roofing. 

For the " Emmanuel " on the slope of the window, 
which consists of flowers studded into moss, the 



Description of the Designs 1 29 



window-sill must first be carefully lined with water- 
proof paper, to prevent the damp moss staining the 
stone-work or plaster. This very necessary precaution 
applies to many of the designs, before and hereafter 
mentioned. 

In decorating Slopes of Windows for Easter letters, 
or patterns, made of bunches of yellow Primroses 
and blue Periwinkle, placed in the moss alternately, 
look very beautiful and appropriate. 

A Cross, composed entirely of yellow Primroses, 
with a one-sided perspective view of the edges, done 
in Periwinkle, is also very effective. 

PLATE VI. In a Stone Pulpit, the designs for 
the Panels should be cut out in not very strong card- 
board, then covered with cloth, velvet, blossom work, 
&c. ; and, when complete, pasted on to the Panel. 
The small wreaths that surround them may be wound 
upon a light wooden frame that fits into the Panel 
sufficiently closely to fix itself when pressed in. 

The small Quatre-foils running round the bottom 

K 



130 Flowers and Festivals 



of the Pulpit are, in the drawing, made of four 
Immortelles, sewn upon strong stout paper, and 
intended to be pasted on to the stone. 

If the Pulpit be of wood, a good effect is pro- 
duced by laying in the entire Panel with coloured or 
white velvet, cloth, &c. ; bordering it, and placing 
the device upon it. The velvet, &c., should be 
firmly and evenly tacked over strong paper, the 
exact size of the panel; so that the whole may be 
fixed to the pulpit with only one small nail at each 
corner. 

The Text at the top of the Pulpit may be executed 
in various ways ; the letters suspended separately on 
an invisible wire; or cut out in crimson velvet on 
a band of white velvet; or the Text illuminated on 
tinted paper, with a border of small leaves, sewn 
on separately ; or the border may be illuminated, to 
correspond with the Text. 

The Cross upon the Shield may be embroidered 
in gold braid or silk, drawn closely across a founda- 
tion of yellow card-board, or wash-leather ; or it may 



Description of the Designs 131 



be covered with Honesty leaves, placed thickly one 
over the other, like the scales of a fish. 

PLATE VII. Comprises two more designs for the 
Panels of Pulpits, which the foregoing remarks will 
have sufficiently explained. 

PLATE VIII. In many Churches, where no per- 
manent Reredos exists, a temporary one will be found 
to give increased dignity to the decorations for a 
Special Festival. 

The foundation of one similar to the drawing has 
been made by a village carpenter, of stained and 
varnished American beech-wood. 

The Panels may be filled in in endless variety. 

For Easter or Whitsuntide, a foundation of blue, if 
it agree with the Altar-cloth, with either the Mono- 
grams, Crosses, ex fleur-de-lis, in white double Daisies, 
is an appropriate style; or, again, the two end divi- 
sions may be diapered in leaves, with a blossom 
in the centre, similar to the style of Plate IX. 
K 2 



132 



Flowers and Festivals 



The Monogram in the middle division, if cut out 
in cork, will be found to give all the effect of rich old 
wood-carving. 

PLATE IX. Contains patterns of Diaper-work, 
suitable for any blank wall-space, or piece of wood 
panelling on any part of the Church. 

Fig. i Is most suitable for wood-work or plaster, 
when each leaf may be fastened with a single small 
nail. A piece of tape, with the intervals marked 
across it in ink, should be used to measure by. 

In Fig. 2 The straps of leaves should be made on 
brown paper, about an inch wide. The fleur-de-lis, 
cut out in red or blue, and pasted on to the stone. 
This again may be varied, by placing a small bouquet 
of flowers at each crossing. 

PLATE X. ALTAR RAILS. 

Fig. i. In this drawing, the open spaces that are 
found between Altar rails are filled in with scarlet; 



Description of the Designs 133 



the designs, cut out in brown paper, and then covered 
with greenery, &c., pinned upon it. 

Fig. 2. Here fine wire should be used to bind the 
small strands of green upon a stronger wire ; for, if 
string only be used, the diamonds will not be exact. 
The flowers sewn first on to about two inches of black 
tape, and after the lattice-work is put up, fastened on 
at the crossings. 

PLATE XI. 

Fig. i. The zigzags in this pattern must be made 
separately, on strips of strong brown paper. If the pillar 
be plastered, they may be nailed top and bottom ; if it 
be of stone, the joints in the masonry must be con- 
sidered as much as possible ; or the zigzags may be 
hung from a fine wire painted the colour of the pillar. 
In the Plate, the wire is shown by a dotted line. 

Fig. 2. Here the straight lines of greenery running 
from top to bottom are best made by covering lengths of 
tiling-laths with leaves, the length fitting in sufficiently 



134 Flowers and Festivals 



tightly between the pedestal and the entablature to fix 
itself. The centre device may be hung on a single 
nail, by a picture ring-screw being fixed in just behind 
the top of the Cross. 

Fig 3- The upright length of covered tiling-lath 
should first be firmly fixed up ; and to this may then 
be nailed the broad straps of strong brown paper that 
spring from it on each side. 

PLATE XII. 

fig. i. The wreaths, lapped with wire on strong 
string, (see page 106,) must be fixed at exactly equal 
distances, on permanent hooks, round the top of the 
column, and then drawn round it, so that each strand 
is fastened at the bottom in a perpendicular line under 
where it springs from at the top. 

In Fig. 2 The tiling-laths are covered with Fir, 
so that the sprays shoot out regularly from each side. 
These laths are fastened by fitting in tightly between 
the pedestal and the entablature, as before mentioned. 



Description of the Designs 135 



Fig. 3 Is a style of decoration especially suited to 
Harvest-tide. The long sprays are those of the 
Common Bramble or Blackberry. They must be well 
buried from top to bottom where they spring from, in 
damp moss, or placed in the aforesaid invisible tubes; 
as, in spite of their extreme grace and beauty, they are 
liable soon to fade. 

PLATE XIII. Represents the front of a gallery an 
evil, a piece of pure ugliness, which, since it often 
exists, must be made the best of. 

The explanations of Panelling already given will 
sufficiently explain this ; further than that the large 
letters, cut out with extreme care as to the outline, in 
white cotton wool, without any other ornamentation 
upon them, are specially recommended. 

The Cross in the centre must have a strong but 
perfectly plain wooden foundation, on which the more 
ornamented outline, cut out in roofing, may be nailed : 
and care must be taken to preserve the proportion of 
this Cross, as drawn, with regard to the gallery; for, 



] 2 6 Flowers and Festivals 



unless made large and imposing, it had better be left 
out altogether. 

PLATE XIV. Comprises four more designs suitable 
to the Panels or Centres of Galleries, which the fore- 
going remarks will have sufficiently explained. 

Fig. 2 Is more especially intended for Harvest-tide, 
when the Centre should be one rich solid mass of 
flowers, with the ferns bound on fine wire, with green 
German wool, and then carefully bent into shape. 

PLATE XV. As the explanation of the Plates pro- 
ceeds, it becomes almost a repetition of what has gone 
before." 

In this Plate, the only novelty is the hanging of 
devices from the key-stone of the Arches. This must 
be done by fine wire, from each side of the arch, so 
that the device hangs exactly in the centre, and not 
more to one side than another, and the device must 
also be covered on both sides, so that the effect is 
equally good from all points of view. 



Description of the Designs 137 



PLATE XVI. Contains four more devices for the 
Spandrils, or the spaces between arches, and in one 
form or another have been sufficiently explained before 
in the previous figures. 

PLATE XVII. Is a design more especially intended 
to fill the large space that is frequently found above a 
Chancel Arch. The foundation must be wood, a plain 
wide Cross " Boutonnee," with a narrower Cross of 
S. Andrew nailed upon it, (Plate XXIV., fig. 8.) On 
this must be placed the exact that is, the more 
ornamented outline, cut out in roofing. 

The Agnus Dei in the centre, and the signs of the 
four Evangelists at the four corners, must be carefully 
etched or painted upon white velvet; while the rest of 
the device may be filled in, ornamented and bordered, 
according to taste, or so as best to harmonize with the 
prevailing colour of the usual Church furniture. 

PLATES XVIII., XIX., and XX. Do* not require 
any separate explanation, as they are only a series of 



138 Flowers and Festivals 



Monograms and Crosses, to be used as a variety, or 
in change with those already given and described. 

PLATES XXI., XXII., and XXIII. Contain two 
useful Alphabets, with plain and simple angles, effective 
from a distance, and easily read *. 

Care should be taken, in copying these, to preserve 
their exact proportions. 

They may be used in various ways, as foundations, 
to be covered with either straw, greenery, or flowers ; 
or they may be painted and put up separately. 

! 

PLATE XXIV. Contains various forms of Crosses 
elsewhere alluded to in the text. 

4 Messrs. Cox and Son/ and Mr. Beal, have also effective 
Alphabets ready cut out as patterns. 



SENTENCES AND TEXTS OF SCRIPTURE 

" And thou shalt -write them upon the posts of thy hottse, and on 
thy gates." DEUT. vL 9. 

' I ''HE Eighty-second Canon directs that "chosen 
sentences " be " written upon the walls " of Churches 
and Chapels, in places convenient ;" and, although the 
system of teaching the important lessons which each 
season of the Church conveys, by means of removable 
texts of Scripture appropriate to the period, is per- 
haps not exactly the plan contemplated by the Canon, 
yet it is in strict accordance with its direction. 

Texts of Scripture conspicuously displayed, by 
means of which the progressive doctrines of our 
Church are more impressively kept before the mind, 



140 Flowers and Festivals 



will doubtless be of incalculable benefit. The mind 
prone to wander might be brought back, by the pious 
sentences which meet the eye ; and the children of 
the Church more sensibly indoctrinated with her 
teaching as a system. 

One method of preparing these texts is to paint 
them upon zinc, in black letters ; similar to the Alpha- 
bets given in Plates XXI., XXIL, XXIIL, with the 
capitals in red, when the ground is of white or of any 
light colour. 

If possible, the ground might be of the colour 
proper to the season a description and explanation 
of which will be hereafter given. A good effect is 
obtained by having the initial letters of sentences in 
a different colour to the rest of the words. The 
words themselves might also alternate in colour. 

Red, blue, and black always harmonize; yellow 
should be used instead of gold, as being more 
effective and less expensive. 

Take care to make the letters harmonize with the 
ground-work. Blue, yellow, black, and white letters 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 141 



suit a red ground ; and red, white, and black letters 
are best for a blue ground. 

Red Turkey twill or glazed lining forms an effective 
and cheap ground ; or white paper, expressly made for 
Texts, may be had ; this, being carefully prepared, will 
require no stiffening ; but it is necessary that it should 
be kept extended. 

Drawing-pins will fasten it securely to wood, or the 
edges of the paper may be doubled back to form a 
deep hem, and tape or string inserted through, and 
the hem fastened down ; the ends of the tape can 
then be wound round nails, and fastened in its place 1 . 

A thin line of white or black, according to the 
colour used for the letters, gives a finish, and helps to 
make the letters stand out, and be more readily 
readable at a distance. 

Care should be taken to choose a style of letter 
that may be easily read ; all elaborate ornamentation 
should be rigidly eschewed. 

1 See also "Plain Directions for Making and Fixing Eccle- 
siastical Devices." London: S. B. Beal. 



142 Flowers and Festivals 



The Alphabets given on Plates XXI., &c., will give a 
pretty fair notion as to the style of letter best adapted 
for either painting, or for being composed with leaves 
or flowers. 

There is a simpler and less troublesome plan than 
painting the texts ; and that is, to draw on card and 
cut out a pattern Alphabet ; then place the pattern of 
the letter required reversed upon the back of paper of 
the colour intended to be used; trace it in outline 
with pencil, and afterwards cut it out. 

Papers of various colours most suitable have the 
colour stained deeply on one side, and the back is 
generally white 2 . 

The letters may be fastened on to a strip of white 
calico, with gum, finely-made paste, or, what is still 
better, weak glue-water their places having been 
previously spaced out. The calico may be then 
nailed on to a light wooden frame previously pre- 

2 These papers can be obtained, by post, of Mr. Beal, S. Paul's 
Churchyard, London ; who will also provide a Paper Alphabet, 
of the pattern given in the plates, if desired. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 143 

pared ; and, being furnished with a border of leaves, 
according to taste or fancy, may be then hung up in 
the position it is required to occupy. 

Glazed lining makes a very effective background 
for letters. 

Light letters upon a dark ground are more easily 
read at a distance. 

Colours had anciently a symbolical meaning. White 
signified purity; yellow, wisdom; violet, mourning 
or penitential sorrow; green, blue, and red were 
respectively the emblems of faith, hope, and charity. 
Blue, purple, scarlet, and white or fine linen, are 
the colours with which the veils of the Tabernacle 
were interwoven. 

Josephus informs us that the Jews gave to the 
veils an astronomical signification, and supposed 
them to represent the four elements. 

Fine white linen was a symbol of the earth, because 
it was made out of flax, a production of the earth; 
the blue, as the colour of the sky, was a symbol of 



144 Flowers and Festivals 



the air; the purple, of the sea, because it derived its 
colour from the Murex, a shell-fish that inhabits the 
sea ; and the scarlet was the natural symbol of fire. 

The Church had a difference of colours for the 
various seasons, in their Copes and Albs, viz. : white 
for most of her great festivals; violet for Lent and 
fasts ; red for the festivals of martyrs ; black for 
occasions of deep mourning; and green and other 
colours for ordinary seasons. 

Or more elaborately set forth, as by the Ritualistic 
writers thus : 

WHITE, on the Feasts of our Lord, the Virgin 
Mary, and Saints who were not Martyrs. 

RED, on Pentecost, Invention of the Cross, Feasts 
of Apostles and Martyrs. 

GREEN, on most of the Sundays and on ordinary 
days. 

PURPLE, in Advent, Lent, Ember days, and Vigils. 

BLACK, on Good Friday. 

Suitable Texts are subjoined ; but individual 
piety will doubtless be able to find many more 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 145 

equally as appropriate. These should be placed along 
the Screen, or round the Chancel Arch; but if the 
Pulpit does not shut out the view of the Communion 
Table, the proper place to display these texts will be 
immediately over it, "for the eyes of the people 
being drawn towards that which should be the most 
prominent object in the Church, would thus be 
directly met by this simple illustration of the doctrine 
which the particular season would bring before their 
minds." 




146 Flowers and Festivals 



TEXTS SUITABLE TO THE VARIOUS SEASONS 
AND FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH. 



"The night is far spent, the day is at hand." 
Rom. xiii. 12. 

" He cometh to judge the earth." Ps. xcvi. 13. 

"Prepare ye the way of the Lord." Isa. xl. 3. 

" Behold, a king shall reign." Isa. xxxii. i. 

"Hosanna to the Son of David." S. Matt. 
xxi. 9. 

"Who may abide the day of His coming?" Mai. 
iii. 2. 

"Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the 
Lord." S. Matt xxi. 9. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 147 

" Hosanna in the highest" S. Matt. xxi. 9. 

"Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek." 
S. Matt. xxi. 5. 

"Watch and pray." S. Matt. xxvi. 41. 

" The Lord is at hand." Phil. iv. 5. 

" Rejoice in the Lord alway." Phil. iv. 4. 

" Repent ye, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand," 
S. Matt. iii. 2. 

" Behold, He cometh with clouds ; and every eye 
shall see Him." Rev. i. 7. 

" I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the 
ending." Rev. i. 8. 

" Behold, I come quickly ; and My reward is with 
Me." Rev. xxii. 12. 

"Surely, I come quickly. Even so, come, Lord 
Jesus." Rev. xxii. 20. 

" What I say unto you I say unto all, Watch ! " 
S. Mark xiii. 37. 

" Behold, thy King cometh unto thee." Zech. ix. 9. 



L 2 



148 Flowers and Festivals 



Jiattbttp of our 
{Commonly called Christmas Day.) 

" Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given." 
Isa. ix. 6. 

"Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; the 
sceptre of Thy kingdom is a right sceptre." Ps. 
xlv. 6. 

" The Day-spring from on high hath visited us."- 
S. Luke i. 78. 

"Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting 
Father, Prince of Peace." Isa. ix. 6. 

"The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us." 
S. John i. 14. 

" He came not to do His own will, but the will of 
Him that sent Him." S. John vi. 38. 

" Emmanuel, God with us." S. Matt i. 23. 

" This day is born to you a Saviour, which is Christ 
the Lord." S. Luke ii. n. 

" Glory to God in the Highest, and on earth peace, 
good-will towards men." S. Luke ii. 14. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 149 



" O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up 
into the high mountains." Isa. xl. 9. 

" The right hand of the Lord bringeth mighty 
things to pass." Ps. cxviii. 15. 

" Now is come salvation and strength." Rev. 
xii. 10. 



" Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a 
crown of life." Rev. ii. 10. 

"O Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and 
stonest them that are sent unto thee." S. Luke 
xiii. 34. 

&. SWjn tf)t (Kbangeltet. 

" The disciple whom Jesus loved." S. John xxi. 20. 
" Ye shall indeed drink of My cup." S. Mark 
x. 39. 

fatnoetnts. 



" Out of the mouth of very babes and sucklings 
hast Thou ordained strength." Ps. viii. 2. 



Flowers and Festivals 



" They are without fault before the throne of God." 

Rev. xiv. 5. 

" These are they which follow the Lamb whither- 
soever He goeth." Rev. xiv. 4. 

Ctroimdguin. 

" I came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it." 
S. Matt. v. 17. 

" And when eight days were accomplished for the 
circumcision of the Child, His name was called Jesus." 

S. Luke ii. 21. 

" When the fulness of the time was come, God sent 
forth His Son." Gal. iv. 4. 



"The Gentiles shall come to Thy light." Isa. 
Ix. 3. 

" We have seen His star, and are come to worship 
Him." S. Matt. ii. 2. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 151 

" The Day-spring from on high hath visited us." 
S. Luke i. 78. 

"A Light to lighten the Gentiles." S. Luke ii. 32. 

"I am the Light of the World." S. Matt. viii. 12. 

"Arise, shine; for thy Light is come." Isa. he. i. 

"The people which sat in darkness saw a great 
Light." Isa. ix. 2. 

"There shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a 
Sceptre shall rise out of Israel." Numb. xxiv. 17. 

"The right hand of the Lord bringeth mighty 
things to pass." Ps. cxviii. 15. 

" The Light shineth in darkness, and the darkness 
comprehendeth it not" S. John i. 5. 

" I am the Bright and Morning Star." Rev. xxii. 16. 

" The Lord shall be thine everlasting Light." Isa. 
Ix. 20. 

fcnrt. 

" A broken and a contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt 
not despise." Ps. li. 17. 



152 



Flowers and Festivals 



" Rend your heart, and not your garments." Joel 
ii. 13. 

" His mercy is on them that fear Him." S. Luke 
i. 50. 

" O Lord, have mercy upon us." Ps. cxxiii. 3. 

" When thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash 
thy face; that thou appear not unto men to fast." 
S. Matt. vi. 1 8. 

"Wash me throughly from my wickedness, and 
cleanse me from my sin." Ps. li. 2. 

" Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it 
cannot save." Isa. lix. i. 

" God be merciful unto us." Ps. Ixvii. i. 

"God be merciful to me a sinner." S. Luke 
xviii. 13. 

" In due season we shall reap, if we faint not." 
Gal. vi. 9. 



" Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the 
sin of the world." S. John i. 29. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 153 

" He bare our sins in His own Body on the Tree." 
i S. Pet. ii. 24. 

" It is finished !" S. John xix. 30. 

"Is it nothing to you, all ye that pass by?" Lam. 
i. 12. 

" I looked for some to have pity on Me, but there 
was no one; neither found I any to comfort Me." Ps. 
Ixix. 20. 

" And with His stripes we are healed." Isa. liii. 5. 

" Behold, and see if there be any sorrow like unto 
My sorrow." Lam. i. 12. 



" This is the day which the Lord hath made." Ps. 
cxviii. 4. 

" He is risen." S. Matt. xiv. 2. 

"The Lord is King for ever and ever." Ps. x. 16. 

" As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be 
made alive." i Cor. xv. 22. 

" I know that my Redeemer liveth." Job xix. 25. 



154 



Flowers and Festivals 



"Our life is hid with Christ in God." CoL iii. 3. 

" Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us, therefore 
let us keep the feast." i Cor. v. 7, 8. 

"I am the Resurrection and the Life." S. John 
xi. 25. 

" I am the Light of the World." S. John viii. 12. 

" The Lord is risen indeed." S. Luke xxiv. 34. 

" O death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where is 
thy victory?" i Cor. xv. 55. 

" Death is swallowed up in victory." i Cor. xv. 54. 

" I am He that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I 
am alive for evermore." Rev. i. 18. 

" If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things 
which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right 
hand of God." Col. iii. i. 

" Christ was raised again for our justification." 
Rom. iv. 25. 

" Christ is risen from the dead, the first-fruits of 
them that sleep." i Cor. xv. 20. 

" If we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall 
also live with Him." 2 Tim. ii. 1 1. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 155 

" From henceforth, blessed are the dead which die 
in the Lord." Rev. xiv. 13. 

" Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy Holy One to see 
corruption." Ps. xvi. 10. 

" Hallelujah, for the Lord God Omnipotent reign- 
eth." Rev. xix. 6. 



" If I go not away, the Comforter will not come 
unto you." S. John xvi. 7. 

" Be thou exalted, Lord, in Thine own strength." 
Ps. xxi. 13. 

" He was received up into Heaven, and sat on the 
right hand of God." Acts i. 9. 

" In My Father's house are many mansions : I go 
to prepare a place for you." S. John xiv. 2. 

" Peace I leave with you." S. John xiv. 27. 

" Peace be unto you." S. John xx. 19. 

" It is expedient for you that I go away." S. John 
xvi. 7. 



156 Flowers and Festivals 



" Thou hast ascended on High, Thou hast led cap- 
tivity captive." Ps. Ixviii. 10. 

"Arise, O Lord, into Thy resting-place." Ps. 
cxxxii. 8. 

" I ascend unto My Father and your Father, and to 
My God and your God." S. John xx. 17. 

" Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; and be ye lift 
up, ye everlasting doors ; and the King of Glory shall 
come in." Ps. xxiv. 7- 

" Him hath God exalted with His right hand to be 
a Prince and a Saviour." Acts v. 31. 

"He ever liveth to make intercession for us." 
Heb. vil 25. 

"I will not leave you comfortless." S. John 
xiv. 1 8. 

" O God, wonderful art Thou in Thy holy places." 
Ps. Ixviil 35. 



" I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh." Joel 
ii. 28. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 157 

"The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost." 
S. John xiv. 26. 

" And the Spirit and the Bride say, Come, drink of 
the water of life freely ! " Rev. xxii. 1 7. 

"I will pray the Father, and He shall give you 
another Comforter." S. John xiv. 16. 

" When the Comforter is come, He shall teach you 
all things." S. John xv. 26. 

" When He, the Spirit of Truth, is come, He will 
guide you into all truth."' S. John xvi. 13. 

"They were all filled with the Holy Ghost." 
Acts ii. 4. 

" He commanded the clouds above, and opened the 
doors of Heaven." Ps. xxxviii. 24. 



Crinitg. 

"Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive honour, and 
glory, and power." Rev. iv. n. 

" One Lord, one faith, one baptism." Ephes. iv. 5. 



158 Flowers and Festivals 



"Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty." Rev. 
iv. 8. 

"Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of Hosts; the 
whole earth is full of His glory." Isa. vi. 3. 

" There are Three that bear record in Heaven, the 
Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these 
Three are One." i S. John v. 7. 



. Sfottrcfo. 

" Let the Saints be joyful in glory." Ps. cxlix. 5. 
"They that be wise shall shine in the brightness 
of the firmament" Dan. xii. 3. 



&. it i)o mas'. 

"With the heart man believeth unto righteousness." 
Rom. x. 10. 

" Blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have 
believed." S. John xx. 29. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 159 



Conbmfton of &. 

" The voice of the Lord breaketh the Cedar trees ; 
yea, the Lord breaketh the Cedars of Libanus." 
Ps. xxix. 5. 

" Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of 
Christ." i Cor. xi. i. 



$ngentatton of Christ in tije Cemple. 

(Commonly called the Purification of Saint Mary the 
Virgin.} 

" The Desire of all Nations shall come." Haggai 
ii. 7. 

"And I will make Him my firstborn, higher than 
the kings of the earth." Ps. Ixxxix. 27. 



" They that wait upon the Lord shall renew their 
strength." Is. xl. 31. 



160 Flowers and Festivals 



Cfi* Annunciation of tfje JSlestfrtJ Virgin 

" Behold the handmaid of the Lord." S. Luke i. 
38. 

" Hail, thou that art highly favoured ; the Lord 
is with thee; blessed art thou among women." 
S. Luke i. 28. 



" The Lord gave the word : great was the company 
of the preachers." Ps. Ixviii. u. 

&. 13 Iji lip an* . $ nines*. 

"Their sound went unto all the earth, and their 
words unto the ends of the world." Rom. x. 18. 

?. Barnabas. 

" He was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost." 
Acts xi. 24. 

. $orjn JSaptt'st. 

" Behold, I will send My messenger, and he shall 
prepare the way before Me." Mai. iii. i. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 161 



" Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build My 
Church." S. Matt. xvi. 18. 



tije 

"And they glorified God in me." Gal. i. 24. 



" He that shall endure to the end, the same shall 
be saved." S. Mark xiii. 13. 



" Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel." S. Matt. xix. 28. 



3. JHuijacI antt ^ 

" O praise the Lord, ye angels of His." Ps. ciii. 20. 
" Let all the angels of God worship Him." Heb. 
i. 6. 

M 



1 62 Flowers and Festivals 



. Hufec rt 

" How beautiful are the feet of them that preach 
the Gospel of Peace." Rom. x. 15. 



antt J&. 

" They were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in 
their death they were not divided." 2 Sam. i. 23. 

33aptts'm. 

"Suffer the little children to come unto Me." 
S. Matt. x. 19. 

"Buried with Him in baptism." Col. ii. 12. 

" Except a man be born again, he cannot see the 
kingdom of God." S. John iii. 3. 

Confirmation. 

" I will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be My 
sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." i Cor. 
vi. 1 8. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 163 



" My son, give Me thine heart." Prov. xxiii. 6. 
" Receive ye the Holy Ghost." S. John xx. 22. 
"Ask, and ye shall have." S. Matt. vii. 7. 
"The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." 
Ps. cxi. 10. 



"What God hath joined together, let no man put 
asunder." S. Mark x. 9. 



" I am the Bread of Life." S. John vi. 35. 

"I am the Vine; ye are the branches." S. John 
xv. 5. 

" Thou visitest the earth, and blessest it ; Thou 
makest it very plenteous." Ps. Ixv. 9. 

" Thou crownest the year with Thy goodness." 
Ps. Ixv. 12. 

" The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof." 
i Cor. x. 28. 

M 2 



1 64 Flowers and Festivals 



" Honour the Lord with thy first-fruits : so shall thy 
barns be filled with plenty." Prov. iii. 9. 

" The harvest is the end of the world, and the 
reapers are the angels." S. Matt. xiii. 39. 

" He maketh peace in thy borders, and filleth thee 
with the flower of wheat." Ps. cxlviii. 14. 

"Man shall not live by bread alone." S. Matt. 
iv. 4. 



" Feed My lambs." S. John xxi. 15. 

" Woe unto him that offendeth one of these little 
ones." S. Matt, xviii. 6. 

" Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven." S. Mark 
x. 14. 

dfeasit of Drtmation. 

:< This is none other but the house of God ; this is 
the gate of Heaven." Gen. xxviii. 17. 



Sentences and Texts of Scripture 165 

The short texts are most useful for placing as a 
Reredos ; the longer ones to go round the string- 
course of the Clerestory, in the Nave, round the 
Chancel Arch, and the Wall-plate of the Aisles. 

The manner of working them out must be left 
in a great measure to individual taste, guided by the 
few directions previously given in this work. 



CONCLUSION 

"Sorry tve are that any good and godly mind should be grieved 
with that "which is done. If the maintenance of ceremonies 
be a corrosive to those who oppugn them ; undoubtedly, to such 
as maintain them, it can be no great pleasure when they behold 
how that which they reverence is oppugned. And, therefore, 
they that judge themselves martyrs when they are grieved, should 
think withal what they are whom they grieve." HOOKER. 

T N order to make the present volume as complete as 
possible in itself, a few hints as to the best mode of 
conducting Harvest Home Festivals, &c., are sub- 
joined. 

These are mostly derived from a very useful little 
work ', by the Rector of Frittenden, to which reference 

1 "Scheme for a Harvest Home, with full details as to 
Management, &c." London: Rivingtons. 



Conclusion 167 



may be made with advantage, and further and fuller 
particulars learned. 

I. How TO BEGIN. 

It will be well to interest as many persons as 
possible in the arrangements, so far as it can be done 
without making the management cumbersome. If, 
however, there is opposition to the scheme, begin on 
a very moderate scale. 

"All things come round to him who will but wait." 
In some places it may be best to call a public meeting 
of the inhabitants, in order to excite an interest in the 
scheme ; but, more generally, it will be sufficient to 
select two employers in each quarter of the parish, 
requesting them, in the first instance, to canvass for 
supporters ; and afterwards, together with the Clergy, 
to form a Committee of Managers. 

Two responsible persons should be appointed as 
Stewards in the tent one or both to remain in it 
throughout the day, to receive and account for all 
provisions, &c., and distribute them tinder the direc- 



j68 Flowers and Festivals 



tion of the Committee. A messenger should also be 
placed under their orders. 

These three officers should be paid. 

A tent should be hired, of ample size to accom- 
modate the required number; a crowded space 
necessarily involves much confusion. 

A good band should also be engaged, this is highly 
important; and it is presumed that the bell-ringers 
will not be absent from their post on the day of the 
feast. 

II. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS. 

Subscribers may receive, for each $s. contributed, 
one ticket of admission to the dinner, two beer tickets 
for one pint each, and four tickets of admission to the 
tea. 

Calculation of cost is as follows : dinner, is. id. ; 
4 teas, is. \d. ; extra expenses, per head, is. yd. 
This will cover the whole expenditure on a liberal 
scale with thetexception of such gratuitous assistance 



Conclusion 169 

as will, in most cases, be rendered with as much satis- 
faction to the giver as to the receiver. 

For example, all the provisions may be furnished at 
a lower rate than the usual market price. 

The meat may be gratuitously roasted, baked, or 
boiled, by persons residing near the ground, each 
undertaking to deliver a certain number of joints at 
the tent, punctually at the hour of dinner. The 
employers and visitors carve and wait at table. 

All preparations should be made in good time; and 
therefore it is desirable that no tickets should be sold 
within ten days of the feast. 

III. HOURS RECOMMENDED. 

In order that half a day's work may be done, and 
so the expense to the employers diminished, Service 
in the Church may be at one o'clock ; if possible, 
Choral, with a short sermon. 

The labourers' dinner at 2 ; after which very few 
and very short speeches. Cricket, quoits, skittles, 
music, and tobacco from 3.30 to 6. Tea at 6. 



170 



Flowers and Festivals 



Speeches, if any, fewer and shorter. Athletic games 
for prizes, and dancing from 7 to 9; at 9, go to 
" rest, and be thankful." 

There is much other useful matter which may be 
gleaned from the book itself. 

Before concluding this work, it may be as well to 
give some little information as to the time the floral 
decorations should remain up in their places in the 
Church. 

Of course a great deal must depend upon the 
nature of the materials, and the length of time they 
will last, without getting faded and shabby as, inde- 
pendently of any stated times, it will be as well not to 
allow the decorations to remain in a faded condition, 
and spoil the effect they might otherwise have made 
upon the mind and, as no definite rule can be laid 
down for this case, every thing of the sort must be 
settled by individual experience. 

Herrick, in his " Hesperides," gives us, in a few 
quaint lines, the custom in his time; and, as some such 



Conclusion 171 

custom is to this day followed by popular tradition, 
the poem is here subjoined. 



Ceremonies for CanfclemaSS 



Down with Rosemary and Bayes, 
Down with the Misleto ; 

In stead of Holly, now up-raise, 
The greener Box, for show. 

The Holly hitherto did sway ; 

Let Box now domineere, 
Until the dancing Easter Day 3 , 

Or Easter's Eve appeare. 



2 February i. 

3 Referring to a popular error. It was formerly supposed 
that the sun danced on Easter Day. This is mentioned by Sir 
Thomas Browne, in his "Vulgar Errors;" and is also quaintly 
alluded to in an old Ballad, found in a rare work called " Re- 
creation for Ingenious Head-pieces," 1667, in the following 
manner : 

' ' But, Dick, she dances such a way, 
No Sun upon an Easter Day, , 
Is half so fine a sight." 



1 7 2 Flowers and Festivals 



The youthfull Box, which now hath grace, 

Your houses to renew, 
Grown old, surrender must his place 

Unto the crisped Yew. 

When Yew is out, the Birch comes in, 

And many flowers besides ; 
Both of a fresh and fragrant kinne, 

To honour Whitsuntide. 

Green Rushes then, and sweetest Bents *, 

With cooler Oken Boughs, 
Come in for comely ornaments, 

To re-adorn the house. " 

Thus times do shift ; each thing his turne do's hold ; 
New things succeed, as former things grow old. " 



A writer in the " Gentleman's Magazine " for May, 
1811, speaking of the manner in which the inhabitants 
of the North Riding of Yorkshire celebrate Christmas, 
says : " The windows and pews of the Church are 
adorned with branches of Holly, which remain until 
Good Friday." 

4 Either the Bent, a kind of grass ; or Herb Bennet, " smelling 
somewhat like unto Cloves." Culpepper's "Herbal." 



Conclusion 1 73 



In many parts of the country, the Christmas decora- 
tions are allowed to remain in the Churches and in 
the houses until Shrove Tuesday, whether that day 
falls early or late; and are used to burn under the pan 
in which pan-cakes are fried, great care being taken 
to allow not a single leaf to remain unconsumed ; and 
much interest is sometimes excited by observing 
whether the berries burst with a noise or burn silently. 
Herrick alludes to some such custom in the few lines 
which follow: 

" Down with the Holly, Ivie all 
Wherewith ye drest the Christmas Hall ; 
That so the superstitious find, 
Not one least branch there left behind ; 
For look, how many leaves there be, 
Neglected there maids, trust to me, 
So many goblins you shall see ! " 

There is really no definite rule as to the proper time 
for taking down the decorations at Christmas, Epi- 
phany, Candlemas, or Purification Day, and Septua- 
gesima being severally mentioned. Perhaps, for 
Christmas decorations, the Epiphany Day is the best 



1 74 Flowers and Festivals 



time, as it is nearer the octave ; although the ancient 
custom was, as Herrick shows, to take all down at 
Candlemas, that the spaces might be ready for the 
decorations which were to follow and which did 
follow, all the year round, both in Churches and 
houses. Of this we have sufficient proof in the verses 
above quoted ; and which we may take as an argument, 
if argument is needed, for the constant repetition of 
floral decorations in Churches. 

There is another help to decoration which has 
not been mentioned in the foregoing pages, and 
which, if it can be done, will contribute in no small 
degree towards a more effective style of decoration 
than can be obtained by flowers alone and that is, 
the introduction of various coloured banners, blazoned 
with the arms of the Diocese, or the emblem of the 
Patron Saint, also a practice of ancient origin. 

Among the various ornaments with which the 
Church was decorated, after the establishment of the 
Church in the time of Constantine, may be reckoned 



Conclusion 1 75 

the anathemata, or gifts from different individuals, 
which were suspended on pillars, or placed in some 
other conspicuous situation ; and intended as memo- 
rials of some particular mercy or benefit received 
from God. (Euseb. de Vita Const, lib. iii. c. 38 40. 
Sozomen. Hist. Eccles. lib. iv. c. 25. Hieron. Ep. 
86, al. 26 ad Eustoch. Ep. 9. al. 13. ad Paulin.) 

Certain gifts of this kind, called t/cTUTrw/tara, con- 
sisting of figurative or hieroglyphical representations 
of the benefit commemorated, came into use pro- 
bably about the middle of the fifth century. Such 
offerings may be regarded as an imitation of the well- 
known practice of suspending votive tablets, shields, 
and the like in the heathen temples; but it is not 
without precedent also in sacred history, i Sam. 
vi. 4 s . 

Every one rich or poor, old or young, high or 
low, gentle or simple may help in the work, or may 

5 Stephens on Common Prayer, vol. i., page 350. 



176 Flowers and Festivals 



contribute something towards decorating God's house, 
either by material or labour. 

If the poor cannot effect as much as the rich, yet 
is their gift none the less acceptable. 

All are not endowed with the same talents ; but 
every one can do something, according to his or her 
individual ability. Every work should be done with 
reverence and ^humility. Let none despise, neither let 
any envy, his neighbour's offering; do all to the 
glory of God, the furtherance of reverence, and the 
promotion of piety ; remembering that 

"Of all the good things whatsoe'er we do, 
God is the APXH and the TEAO2 too." 



THE END. 



GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS, ST. JOHN'S SQUARE, LONDON. 



Plate 2 




Pkte 3 





Plate 4. 




< *,-" 

^ 





Plate 5 




PJale 6. 





Pla.be 7 





Plate 9. 




Plate 10 





:-..-, 




Plate 12. 




Plaie 14 



2 







Plate 17 




Pkle 19. 





Plate 20 




Plate 21. 














-4 




Plate 22 
















FJale '23. 





Y * If f 

Itiklmnn 







Hate 














University of California Library 
Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



10/8 
NON-RENEWABLE 




OUE 2 WS FROM OWE RECEIVED 



OCLA ACCESS SERVICES 
.nterlibrary Loan 



1 1 630 University Research Library 
^ox951575 
t ,s Angeles CA9009b-1 b/b